The rate of fusing hydrogen is so slow they last a very long time. It fuses hydrogen only in the very centres and the cores aren 't very big. Outside of this small region the gas is convective, which means the hot stuff rises all the way to the surface, cools, then falls back in to the core. That is important, because it means the entire star is available for fuel. Both hydrogen and helium rise up through the star and then fall back down. The star can 't fuse the helium, but the hydrogen that makes it back to the centre. Even after a long time, these stars can still shine as the hydrogen mixed throughout the star eventually makes it down to the centre. A really low mass red dwarf last approximately a trillion years. The universe itself is less than 14 billion years old, so even the oldest red dwarf stars are basically infants. They 're just barely getting a start in life, and they’ll look pretty much the same for the next 990 billion years or so. Eventually, they do run out of fuel. When one does, the star itself will be pure helium plus whatever heavier elements it was burned with and fusion will cease. It will then cool, which will take many more billion of years. Finally, it will be a cold, black, dead star.
That is true for stars at the lower end of the mass scale, up to roughly a third of the mass of the sun. But stars with more mass than that, like the sun, work a little differently. Their cores are bigger and hotter and denser. The different conditions inside them means the material in them doesn 't convect, the...
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... white dwarf. The star can 't generate energy anymore and it will cool and fade over the next billions of years and will become a black dwarf.
But this is not always the case. Some with bigger mass than the sun, go through another phase called planetary nebulae. A planetary nebula is created when a star blows off its outer layers after it has run out of fuel to burn. These outer layers of gas expand into space, forming a nebula in the shape of a ring or a bubble. William Herschel called these spherical clouds planetary nebulae because they were round like the planets. At the center of a planetary nebula, the glowing, left-over central part of the star from which it came can usually still be seen.
For us, we would be fry to death or if the sun loses plenty of mass, the planets will no longer be gravitationally bound and we would be flung into interstellar space.
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