Five experiments identified factors within both the person and the social context that determine whether leaders wield their power to promote group goals or self-interest. In most cases, leaders behaved in a manner consistent with group goals. However, when there was instability within the hierarchy, leaders high in dominance motivation prioritized their self-interest over group goals. They withheld valuable information from the group, excluded a highly skilled group member, or prevented a group member from having any influence over a group task. These self-interested actions were eliminated when the group was competing against a rival group.
To ensure subordinates ' compliance with organizational policies and procedures, those in leadership positions and authority have a number of resources at their disposal. These include rewards and punishments, surveillance, persuasion, etc. When choosing strategies that will maximize their capacity to influence, however, leaders cannot afford to overlook the role of social identity processes. Evidence from two studies show that the success or failure of strategies, such as rewards/punishments and surveillance depends on whether the leader is considered to be an in-group or out-group member....
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...h other. Results indicate that cooperative interdependence contributes to productivity and leads to efficient completion of tasks.
Cooperative, in contrast to competitive, interdependence was found to contribute to exchange and productivity. Managers and employees used common tasks, a shared purpose, the need to exchange resources, and positive feelings to conclude their goals were cooperative. Cooperative interaction was found to result in efficient completion of tasks, improved productivity, and confidence that future collaboration would be successful.
In conclusion, managers and employees who believe their goals are cooperative, compared to competitive or independent, expect mutual assistance, exchange resources, and use collaborative influence; they develop positive feelings, make progress on the task, work efficiently, and strengthen their work relationship.
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