How Does The Cell Cells And Liver Cells Are Essential Building Blocks Of The Nervous And Digestive System

How Does The Cell Cells And Liver Cells Are Essential Building Blocks Of The Nervous And Digestive System

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Living organisms are composed of various cells, which are specialised to carry out different functions. Nerve cells and liver cells are two important groups of cells as they are essential building blocks of the nervous and digestive system. Both the liver cells and the nerve cells initially start off as totipotent cells (stem cells) however due to gene expression they specialise to carry out their different functions. The nerve cell is adapted to cell impulses across the body liver cell is adapted for the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. Liver cells do not have the same biochemical functions as nerve cells, although they have the same set of gene instructions.
The liver is the second major organ in mammals, situated on the right side of the human body, underneath the diaphragm. The liver has a dual blood supply – from the hepatic artery and the portal vein. Around 75% of the blood in the liver is supplied by the portal vein which carries blood from the gut, pancreas and spleen. The hepatic artery, which originates from the abdominal aorta supplies the liver with oxygenated blood which supports the metabolic processes (Bollus, 2011). There are four types of liver cells – hepatocytes, liver endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, Stellate cells. Liver cells are taking part in sugar, lipid and protein metabolism. The main cells responsible for the function of the liver are the hepatocytes. They are responsible for the production of bile (substance which supports the digestion of lipids), and processing hormones, as well as decomposing drugs and alcohol.
Nerve cells are responsible for our respond to external stimulations. Neurons are the smal...

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...nt of a gene program, precise determination is specific for the individual cell. The development of cell differentiation includes the expression of specific genes, which control the biochemical functions linked with the cell type and that distinguishes the specialised cells (MacCorkle and Tan,2005). Gene expression is the realisation of hereditary information via transcription and translation. It is controlled by different complicated mechanisms. The changes in the process of development from childhood to adulthood are result of the programmed switching off and on of different genes. Even in adulthood some cells undergo differentiation, e.g. erythrocytes (red blood cells). Although the somatic cells of an organism have the same set of genes, in cells with different morphology and function (liver, nerve cells) is expressed small and different part of the common genes.

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