In the research examined, the methods were similar, involving a type of learning or memory task followed by sleeping or not sleeping, and then recalling the information that was learned. Memory consolidation was operationalized and measured in terms of the recall or performance on a task performed either after sleeping or after being awake. Thus, better performance on the task was considered to represent better memory consolidation. Learning words or sequences and then being tested over them is a typical way to examine recall in these studies. More specifically, some com...
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