During the years of 3500 BC to 2500 BC, the geography of a land often impacted a civilizations development in great measures. Depending on the resources available or the detriments present due to certain topographical characteristics like rivers or deserts, a civilization could flourish or collapse. By studying the geographic features of growing societies like the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris Rivers as well as the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the link between developing cultures and geography will be examined through sources, including Egypt: Ancient Culture, Modern Land edited by Jaromir Malek and Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization by Paul Kriwaczek. To determine the extent of its influence, this investigation will attempt to compare and contrast the role of geography in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, focusing on the civilizations’ various periods of development and settlement.
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Section B: Summary of Evidence
During its years of development, specifically around in 3500, the ancient land of Egypt was located close to multiple continents, these continents being Europe, Asia, and Africa. It was separated into different divisions, mainly geographical, there being four major physical geographic sections. The first was water-based, the Nile Valley and Delta, the second two were deserts, Eastern Desert and Western Desert, and the last was the Sinai Peninsula. The ancient Egyptians also considered their land to be separated in two more divisions: “red land” and “black land”. The desert surrounding Egypt was the “red land” section because it was barren. The area served as a means of protection, as it divided Egypt from enemies that wanted to attack and ...
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Faiella, Graham. The Technology of Mesopotamia. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2006.
Manley, Bill. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt. London: Penguin Books, 1996.
Malek, Jaromir. Egypt: Ancient Culture, Modern Land. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Schomp, Virginia. Ancient Mesopotamia: The Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. New York: Franklin Watts, 2004.
“Geographical features.” The British Museum. http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/geography/explore
“Geography.” The British Museum. http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/geography.home.html.
“Geography.” The British Museum. http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/geography/home_set.html
"Water Management in the Ancient World." Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Student Resources in Context. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
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