How Damaging is Negative Word of Mouth? Essay

How Damaging is Negative Word of Mouth? Essay

Length: 2547 words (7.3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Abstract
The purpose of the study was to validate the implications of Word of Mouth in Pakistani cultural setup. This study replicates a previous study by Charlett, D., Garland, R. and Marr, N. (1995) testing the two hypotheses “that both positive and negative WOM will affect consumers' probability of purchase and attitudes towards a product” and “that negative WOM will have a stronger effect than positive WOM on consumers' probability of purchase and attitudes towards a product”. Data was collected from a convenience sample of university students divided into three groups, two of which were exposed to positive and negative WOM respectively and third taken as the control group. Results of data analysis supported both the hypotheses, contrary to the findings of previous study for the second hypothesis. A number of variables, including the small sample and variations in realistic cultural settings, however, impose limitations on the study that can be removed through future studies. The research supports the significance of WOM and stronger effect of negative WOM in Pakistani cultural setup and impresses upon the value of WOM for any marketable product.

Keywords: Word of Mouth, Purchase Probabilities, Customer Satisfaction, Attitude Measurement.

1. Introduction

Call it advice, suggestion, consultation or gossip and even grapevine the importance of opinion passed on as word of mouth has never diminished since the history of human society. Whatever the promotional effort or how convincing the advertising message devised, almost everything gets debated amongst people and either gets a nod of approval and thus the legitimacy for adoption or fades away like many other ideas in the pages of history. Therefore, it is natural for a...


... middle of paper ...


...ce Research [Online]. Available at: http://www.csulb.edu/web/journals/jecr/issues/20082/paper3.pdf (Accessed: 25 October 2008).
[11] Trusov, M., Bucklin R.E., Pauwels K., (in press) ‘Estimating the Dynamic Effects of Online Word-of-Mouth on Member Growth of Internet Social Networks’ [Online]. Available at: http://mba.tuck.dartmouth.edu/pages/faculty/koen.pauwels/Pauwels%20updates%202007/Estimating%20the%20Elasticity%20of%20WoM%20May%2012%202007.pdf (Accessed: 25 October 2008).
[12] Yoh, T. (2005) ‘Information sources for college students athletic shoe purchasing’, Smart Online Journal, Spring 2005, pp. 28-34 [Online]. Available at: http://www.thesmartjournal.com/shoe%20purchasing.pdf (Accessed: 25 October 2008).
[13] Word of Mouth Marketing Association (2008) WOMMA’s Practical Ethics Toolkit. Available at: http://www.womma.org/ethics/ (Accessed: 9 November 2008).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Positive And Negative Impacts Of Cruise Ships Essay

- Positive and Negative Impacts that Cruise Ships have in Tauranga Positives: Dredging has begun in the Tauranga shipping channels. The channels will be widen and deepened form 12.9 metres to 14.5 metres inside the harbor and 15.8 metres outside the harbor. With the new depth and width of the shipping channel, Tauranga will be able to receive visits from ships that are 8,200 twenty-foot equivalent and the current it can withhold is only 4,500. The dredged material will mostly consist of clean sand and will be placed in an off-shore deposition site....   [tags: Cruise ship, Ship, New Zealand, Bay of Plenty]

Term Papers
849 words (2.4 pages)

Marketing, Word Of Mouth, Is The Process Of Brands Getting Their Message Out

- Influencer Marketing, also known as "word of mouth", is the process of brands getting their message out through people who are influential to their target market. It 's no secret that traditional marketing practices have declined and consumers are now more skeptical than ever. Brands have had to find ways of connecting with potential customers in a more authentic way. Although a consumer may love a brand he/she is weary of the message distributed by them. However, posts created by influencers, even when #ad #sponsored is included, aren 't scrutinized to that level and are seen as more organic....   [tags: Marketing, Word of mouth, Influencer marketing]

Term Papers
1065 words (3 pages)

Essay on Impact of Word-of-Mouth on Consumer Attitudes

- Literature Review Since the 1960s, a large body of marketing research has documented the pervasive impact of word-of-mouth on consumer attitudes and behavior (Bansal & Voyer, 2000; Bone, 1995; Buttle, 1998; Herr et al., 1991; Laczniak, DeCarlo, & Ramaswani, 2001; Smith & Vogt, 1995; Wirtz & Chew, 2002). Word of mouth (WOM) communication is recognized as an important medium for influencing consumer behavior (Arndt, 1967). Consumers generally have greater tendency to be exposed to marketer-dominated sources, therefore, personal word of mouth source was usually the most effective (Arndt1967)....   [tags: relationship, effectiveness, marketing]

Term Papers
628 words (1.8 pages)

Advertisement Is Destroying Us And The Word Of Mouth Essay

- Today we use three main ways to get information, TV,the Internet and word of mouth. Once we turn our TV or radio within the first twenty minutes of your program there is a break in whatever show that you’re tuned into or listening to, their will be a advertisements to promote some product that suppliers want you to consume. The Advertisements are usually telling you to do some type of action, whether it’s to buy something, listen to something or vote for something or ect. You may ask why that such a bad thing is, and I would say because of the targeting advertisements....   [tags: Mass media, Advertising, Coca-Cola]

Term Papers
1751 words (5 pages)

Viral Marketing: Word-of-Mouth Marketing Essay

- Viral Marketing Viral marketing is a form of word-of-mouth marketing that aims to result in a message spreading exponentially and campaigns work when a message is spread exponentially and it results in a desired outcome for a brand (Stokes, R., 2010). It uses the internet to expose and spread the product or service. It harnesses the electronic connectivity of individuals to ensure marketing messages are referred from one person to another (Stokes, R., 2010). There are two types of viral marketing....   [tags: message spreading, social media]

Term Papers
1045 words (3 pages)

Viral Marketing: Word-to-Mouth-Marketing Essay

- Viral Marketing Viral marketing is a form of word-of-mouth marketing that aims to result in a message spreading exponentially and campaigns work when a message is spread exponentially and it results in a desired outcome for a brand (Stokes, R., 2010). Viral marketing uses the internet to disclose and spread the company’s products or services. It harnesses the electronic connectivity of individuals to ensure marketing messages are referred from one person to another (Stokes, R., 2010). There are two types of viral marketing....   [tags: campaign, message, social media]

Term Papers
1717 words (4.9 pages)

Word Of Mouth Buzz Essay

- The Word-Of-Mouth Buzz 'Buzz', if you're a company you will love to here that word. The Buzz is nothing more then the promotion of a product by the word-of-mouth. However, this word-of-mouth promotion has become a very strong force making products that were unknown huge successes. If companies are able to reject the common myths that go along with the buzz then they can use to huge power of the buzz to become nothing other then a marketing legend (Dye, 2000). The way in which the buzz gets started is by people sharing their experiences with each other....   [tags: Business Advertising]

Term Papers
800 words (2.3 pages)

Essay about Elements of Magical Realism and Sublime in Toad's Mouth

- Elements of Magical Realism and Sublime in Toad's Mouth         "Toad's Mouth" is a short story written by Isabel Allende in 1989. She has lived in Chili for most of her life, but she was born in Lima, Peru. Her father was a diplomat in Peru, but when her parents divorced, Allende's mother took her back to Santiago, Chili, to live with her grandparents. She wrote her first novel, The House of Spirits, around 1981. It became an international best seller. After reading "Toad's Mouth, I believe that magical realism and sublime literature have many things in common....   [tags: Toad Mouth Essays]

Term Papers
1467 words (4.2 pages)

The Cells of the Mouth Essay

- The cells of the mouth have some of the fastest turnover rates in the body. This is because oral cells have to grow quickly enough to aid the immune system, to keep nearby organs free of bacteria. Good nutrition also supports the immune system, and the body’s ability to control oral bacteria so they can digest or begin the digestion process without damaging gum, teeth, or tissue. Food that remains in our mouth too long causes bacteria to grow, causing decay in teeth and gums. All carbohydrates break down into simple sugars: glucose, fructose, maltose, and lactose....   [tags: science, diet,]

Term Papers
2165 words (6.2 pages)

Five Different Promotion Techniques of Barista Café Essay

- In this modern era, there are so many people who getting busy with their work and don’t have time to cook their own food or even make their own coffee. They will get their food either in restaurant or café. But some of them prefer to go to café because they can get their meals while getting a good quality of coffee to accompany them. There are a lot of café that can offer them something like that. But the question is, which café will attract them to come and spend their time to enjoy the pleasure of eat and drink coffee in Palmerston North....   [tags: word of mouth, advertisement]

Term Papers
1255 words (3.6 pages)