How Cognition Is Responsible For The Selection Of Goal Directed Behaviors

How Cognition Is Responsible For The Selection Of Goal Directed Behaviors

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Cognition can be a thought of as an umbrella term that consists of a wide array of higher executive function. Higher executive function, is not an anatomical structure of the brain, but made up of a collaboration of areas within the prefrontal cortex (3). Cognition is responsible for but not limited to; adjustment in perceptual selection, response biasing, and the online maintenance of contextual information (1). When looking at cognition in a functional manner, it is responsible for the selection of goal directed behaviors, which occurs through the complex interaction between perception, memory, and action (1). Cognition has been further broken down into three main classifications; inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility (1). Diamond et al. has defined these categories as follows; Cognitive inhibition is referred to as one’s ability to maintain focus by ignoring distractions (1). Working memory is one’s ability to hold actively information and manipulate it (1). Cognitive flexibility is defined as one’s aptitude to alter perspectives, attention, or response mapping (1).
Cognitive function is a highly adaptive physiological process that can be altered by various changes within the body. As discussed in much of the literature, cognition is greatly changed in response to the change in cerebral hemodynamics. During the normal physiological aging process, there tends to be a progressive decrease in cerebral blood, which has been linked to poor cognitive function (2). Furthermore, with a transient increase in cerebral blood flow, more specifically the internal carotid artery and the middle cerebral artery there is positive effect in cognitive function (2). Despite the extensive research done in the...

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