This review of literature investigates home language use in the English as a second language classroom. The main points that are discussed include: (a) language of instruction; (b) second language acquisition theory in relation to home language use; (c) home language practices; (d) benefits of implementing these home language practices. This literature will help to provide insight on appropriate home language practices and activities to involve in my curriculum project.
English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States
Over the past thirty years over thirty million immigrants have came over to the United States. Most of these immigrants have brought along their children, who in turn become English language learners (ELLs) in the public schools of the United States (Migration Policy Institute, 2014). According to the Institute of Education Sciences (2014), between 2011 and 2012 approximately 4.4 million ELLs were in the United States making up about 9.9 percent of the student population. There were eight states that had extremely high numbers of ELLs back in 2012 and seven of those eight were in the western parts of the United States. Also, fourteen other states had between 6 and 9.9 percent of their student population as ELLs (Institute of Education Sciences, 2014).
The ELL population in the U.S. is diverse. ELLs in this region speak over 150 different languages (Migration Policy Institute, 2014). However, the most commonly spoken language in the U.S. is Spanish, making up two- thirds of ELLs in twenty- eight states. According to Migration Policy Institute (2014) closely following behind Spanish as most commonly spoken languages are Chinese, Vietnamese, French and Haitian Creole.
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...l education shifts from the native language to English over a period. A typical succession of instruction might look like this; begins 70 percent Spanish and 30 percent English, then shifts to 85% English and 15 percent Spanish within a few years (Hofstetter, 2004). After a certain point, students are placed in an all-English mainstream classroom; therefore, eventually the native language is no longer used or encouraged at all (Alanis, 2000). Alanis (2000) identified several goals of transitional bilingual education. One goal that was stated was the achievement of proficiency in English (Alanis, 2000). Therefore, this program is not attempting to create or encourage bilingual children (Maniates & Uchikoshi, 2010). The other main goal that has been indicated for this program is social and cultural assimilation, resulting in subtractive bilingualism (Alanis, 2000).
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971 words (2.8 pages)
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989 words (2.8 pages)