In 1939 just before the start of World War 2 Albert Einstein and several other scientists told the then president of the USA Franklin D. Roosevelt that Nazi Germany was putting efforts into purifying Uranium 235 which could be used to build an atomic bomb. The United States launched the Manhattan Project shortly after this which was committed to research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb (Purohit V. 2004 Online “The Atom Bomb: A Brief History”).
How a Nuclear Fission Bomb works:
For a nuclear fission bomb to work the fuel needs to be kept in two subcritical mass chambers to avoid the premature detonation of the bomb. For the bomb to detonate the two subcritical masses must be brought together to form a supercritical mass, (Fruedenrich C & Fuller J, 2000 Online) this is usually done in two ways, a gun-triggered fission bomb and a implosion triggered fission bomb. The two subcritical masses are two parts of radioactive metal (often Plutonium or Uranium-235) which are held with in a sphere, with in this is a neutron generator to trigger a fission reaction.
Neutrons are introduced through the use of the neutron generator; the generator is a pellet of polonium and beryllium-9 separated by a layer of foil within the core of the fissionable fuel. When the foil is broken the two subcritical masses combine and the polonium begins to emit alpha particles. These alpha particles combine with the beryllium-9 to produce beryllium-8 and free neutrons. (Schlumberger Limited, 2009)
These free neutrons then are absorbed into the nucleus of the radioactive metal which immediately splits resulting in a smaller atom and the emission of 3 neutrons which again are absorbed into more atoms as it ...
... middle of paper ...
...g/nuke/control/npt/ (Accessed 25 May 2009)
New Internationalist – Nuclear Weapon Facts, 2008 (Online) Available at: http://www.newint.org/features/2008/06/01/nuclear-weapons-facts (Accessed 25 May 2009)
Nuclear Legacy – The Cold War 2008 (Online) Available at: http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/coldwar/page27.shtml (Accessed 25 May 2009)
Pike, J. 2009 Nuclear Weapons Testing (Online) Available at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/dprk/nuke-test-1.htm (Accessed 26 May 2009)
US Department of Energy – The Manhattan Project, 2009 (Online) Available at: http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/nagasaki.htm (Accessed 24 May 2009)
Dickey, N. H. ed. 1986, Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia – Vol 7 COLOR-DALY , Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. USA
Dickey, N. H. ed. 1986, Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia – Vol 19 NEWJ- ORTH, Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. USA
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Nuclear weapons are one of the most powerful weapons available to humans in terms of energy released. Only two nuclear weapons have thus far been used for war purposes in human history; detonated by the United States on Hiroshima, and Nagasaki. The Manhattan Project was started during World War II with the intention of making an atomic weapon for the United States. Today’s nuclear weapons are over 200x more powerful. Nuclear weapons are the only WMD that is not blocked by international treaties.... [tags: Nuclear Weapons Essays]
766 words (2.2 pages)
- Nuclear Power - A Short History Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nuclei of (normally) very heavy or unstable elements (normally heavier than iron), resulting in a release of large amounts of energy as well as the unstable, radioactive isotopes of lighter elements, as well as any logical number of neutrons. For uranium 235, the most abundant usable fuel present in nature, the number of neutrons released is about 2.4 per atom, and the energy released is about 215 MeV per atom (Example, nd), or about 215 MeV * 6.02*10^23 235U * 1000 g * joule 235U 1 * g * Kg * MeV * 1.602*10-13 = 8.05*10^15 joule or 8.05 petajoule per kilogram of uranium 235 However, uranium is not found in natural conc... [tags: Nuclear Energy Breeder Fission]
1265 words (3.6 pages)
- “Water and the Tsunami That Caused the Worst Nuclear Disaster in History” The number one element that all living things cannot live without is WATER. I love water even though when I was a little girl I almost drowned. This report is going to explore the importance of water its properties and hazards, new science from renowned author, water expert, Dr. Masaru Emoto and also the unprecedented catastrophe from Fukushima’s Nuclear Power Plant, in Japan from the tsunami. Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering 70 percent of the planet.... [tags: Fukushima’s Nuclear Power Plant, Japan]
1955 words (5.6 pages)
- The Paris Peace Treaties The Paris Peace Treaties (1919-1920) IB History To the subject and passive onlooker, those meticulous organizers of the Paris Peace Treaties allowed for an unfortunate amount of flaws to enter their task of creating a treaty that could satisfy all of the nations of not only Europe but of the world as well equally. Yet one must attempt to put that passiveness behind and admit that those of the time of post World War I had truly no idea what was to come of their decisions.... [tags: History]
1636 words (4.7 pages)
- 1930 Schrödinger views electrons as continuous clouds and introduces "wave mechanics" as a mathematical model of the atom. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1931 Albert Einstein urges all scientists to refuse military work. Harold C. Urey of the United States and associates discover deuterium (heavy hydrogen) which is present (0.014%) in all natural hydrogen compounds including water. John D. Crockcroft of Great Britain develops high-voltage apparatus for atomic transmutation.... [tags: Development of Nuclear Weapons]
834 words (2.4 pages)
- Every Friday in Japan, the lawn of the office of the Prime Minister fills up with hundreds of Japanese citizens to protest in concern about the country’s ongoing nuclear program in spite of the meltdown of the Fukushima-Daichi power plant. 170 miles north of Tokyo, the meltdown happened in 2011 after a back to back earthquake and tsunami devastated cooling capabilities within the plant, which subsequently led to the meltdown of one of the reactors. This even displaced tens of thousands of people from their homes.... [tags: Anti Nuclear Energy]
1778 words (5.1 pages)
- DISEC Angola Topic 1: Peaceful Uses for Nuclear Technology I. Introduction Nuclear technology can be useful for things such as food preservation, insect control, agriculture, medicine, water resources, and in industries as well. However, with such tremendous benefits, come large drawbacks. There have been three large accidents in the history of nuclear energy: Three Mile Island in 1979, in which the fuel dripped to the base of the nuclear reactor and the reactor was damaged but radiation was not a health issue; Chernobyl in 1986, where the reactor was not designed with a fail-safe technology of water, but was used with graphite which contains a “positive void coefficient”, the problem wit... [tags: plutonium, nuclear reactors, Angola, UN, terrorism]
1113 words (3.2 pages)
- Nuclear Tragedy on Three Mile Island The Three Mile Island accident can be attributed to both human error and mechanical failure. This story begins on March 28, 1979 at about four o'clock in the morning. Every thing seemed to be running efficiently down at the nuclear power plant in Three Mile Island. Little did anyone know the catastrophe that was about to occur. The problem started in the secondary loop. There was a slight malfunction, which caused the pumps to shut down automatically. The alarms sounded immediately within the control room.... [tags: History Nuclear Essays]
831 words (2.4 pages)
- Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster The Chernobyl disaster was the worst industrial disaster in the history of the world. On April 26, at 1:24am reactor number 4 at the Chernobyl plant blew up. The explosion was the result of an experiment that, due to human error, went awry. The operator at the time made the first mistake that lead to the disaster by disabling automatic shutdown mechanisms. When the operator then went to shut down the reactor from its unstable condition the poor design of the reactor and its systems caused a dramatic power surge within the reactor.... [tags: Chernobyl History Nuclear Essays Papers]
796 words (2.3 pages)
- Nuclear History WHAT IS NUCLEAR ENERGY . Nuclear energy is made up of tiny atoms. All matter has atoms. One drop of water has one six tillion atoms. It would take one hundred million atoms to equal the length of one centimeter. An atom is mostly empty space. At the center of an atom, there is a nucleus. The plural of nucleus is nuclei. Around the nucleus is a cloud of moving electrons. All the atom's mass is in the nucleus. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. A proton and a neutron have the same amount of mass.... [tags: Papers]
812 words (2.3 pages)