China and Japan’s main differences in responding the Western invasion was that Japan accepted Westernization and China did not, which resulted in Japan becoming a modernized nation while China failed to do so. In order for China and Japan to keep their trade to a minimum, but also have a spread of trade goods that they wanted, each nation had opened one port specifically for trade; Guangzhou and Nagasaki, respectively (Fruhstuck, Lecture). Both countries had limited trade with the West and maintained isolation from around the sixteenth century to the late eighteenth century. China opened Guangzhou by the late seventeenth century but the western merchants that landed there had no rights or privileges and were confined to the borders ...
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...he West was much more superior in military technology and power.
Cheng, Pei-kai, Michael Elliot. Lestz, and Jonathan D. Spence. The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection. New York: Norton, 1999. Print.
Fairbank, John King, and Edwin O. Reischauer. China: Tradition and Transformation. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1979. Print.
Gluck, Carol. Japan's Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1985. Print.
Hall, John Whitney. Japan from Prehistory to Modern times. New York: Delacorte, 1979. Print.
Lockwood, William W. Japan's Response to the West: The Contrast with China .. New Haven: n.p., 1956. Print.
Reischauer, Edwin O., and Albert M. Craig. Japan, Tradition & Transformation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978. Print.
Storry, Richard. A History of Modern Japan. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1960. Print.
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