The Historical Development Of Writing Essay

The Historical Development Of Writing Essay

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Writing research in the history has been mainly experienced product-focused writing in the 1900s, text-centered writing in the 1940s, process-based writing from early 1960s to 1980s, sociocultural-incorporated writing from the 1980s to 2000s, and technology-mediated writing practices in a variety of spaces and dimensions from the 1990s till now. The historical development of writing research has witnessed the major shifts in composition theories and the changes of definitions about how writing should be taught. Theory changes and pedagogical shifts have greatly impacted the writing instruction of urban classrooms.
Major Models and Theories in Writing
Cognitive Models
Writing is a complex process and over the last forty plus years, composition researchers have proposed various writing models to explain the processes of writing. Cognitive model of writing started to become popular in early 1970’s. This model emphasizes the significance of mental and cognitive development in the writing process. Representing cognitivists Linda Flower and John Hayes were interested in understanding how decisions were made by writers during the writing process. They perceive writing as a non-linear recursive process and provide a four-step writing process including planning, translating, embedding, and reviewing (Flower & Hayes, 1981). The Heyes-Flower (1981) model puts emphasis on writers’ long term memory and assumes that transcription of spelling and handwriting can be slowed down when verbal memory is reduced. In 1983, Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia revised the model proposed by Flower and Hayes in 1981 and developed a compare, diagnose and operate (CDO) model in 1983. This revised version of model could better explain the planning and rev...


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...ding has created new opportunities and strategies to improve the writing skills of weak writers. In 1994, Breetvelt, Van den Bergh and Rijlaarsdam found that a key element time was neglected in the model so that they incorporated it into their new model and refined it in 1999. The inclusion of time is necessary since it actually affects the quality of writing. Later, they included three modules in their newly designed model: executive component, monitor and strategic knowledge. These different modules function as different cognitive strategies while writers are working on various writing activities. Based on their model, they defined writers as good and weak instead of expert and novice.
Within the domain of linguistic model, structural linguists back in the 1950’s and the 1960’s analyzed the written language through a “bottom up” approach which focused only on the

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