High Blood Pressure Essay

High Blood Pressure Essay

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Raised blood pressure is major preventable cause of CVD, and hypertensive people are three times more likely to develop CVD. High blood pressure increases the workload on the heart and can damage the endothelial lining of blood vessels, cause an upsurge of infiltration of lipids into the arterial wall, worsen endothelial damage and enhance atherosclerotic deposition (Thomas & Bishop, 2007). The most significant influences are obesity, excess alcohol and excess salt intake (Williams et al., 2004). Dietary modifications are proven to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Apple, 1997). A review showed that among overweight hypertensive people, a weight reduction of 3–9% is associated with a decrease of about 3 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In addition, weight-reducing diets may lessen the dosage requirements of antihypertensive medications (Mulrow et al., 2008). A reduction in alcohol intake lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure by an average of 3.3 and 2.0 mmHg (Xin, He, Frontini, Ogden, Motsamai, & Whelton, 2001). On the other hand, excess sodium and inadequate potassium consumption are connected directly to hypertension, and many systems become affected, including renal function, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the atrial natriuretic factor, the sympathetic nervous system, adrenergic receptors, endothelin and nitric oxide and ion transport (Weinberger, 1996). Moreover, insulin can promote renal sodium reabsorption, a number of studies have suggested that hyperinsulinemia may be involved in the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity of blood pressure (Rocchini, 1994). Therefore, insulin resistance has been hypothesised as accountable for increased sodium retention in some obese individuals (Rocch...


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...e, but the whole lifestyle (Segasothy & Phillips, 1999). Although, the vegetarian diet is cost effective, safe, and relatively easy to implement, it should be planed cautiously with sufficient supplementation to avoid vitamin deficiency and malnutrition (Sticher et al, 2010).
The DASH diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, low fat dairy foods, moderate alcohol consumption, reduced salt and saturated and total fat. It has been introduced as a nutritional approach to prevent and treat hypertension (Appel et al., 1997). The sample (n=459 American adults) was fed a control diet for three weeks and then randomized into study groups for eight weeks. Although, the study duration was relatively short, it showed a corresponding reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 3.5 mm Hg and 2.1 mm Hg, respectively, among subjects without hypertension (Appel et al., 1997).



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