Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a linear dsDNA virus classified in Baltimore class I. Since it is a dsDNA virus their genome is about 200 kilobase pairs. The general structure of HSV-1 consists of an envelope, glycoproteins, icosahedral capsid, and linear dsDNA in the center. The envelope is covered with viral glycoproteins, gC and gD, that bind to heparin-sulfate receptors on the cell surface to initiate infection4. Within the envelope is the tegument which links the envelope to the capsid. The tegument also contains proteins and mRNAs that are ready to disrupt cellular processes. Within the center of the HSV-1 structure is the icosahedral capsid that protects the linear dsDNA inside4.
HSV-1 life’s cycle begins with the attachment of gC receptors to epithelial cell surface heparin-sulfate receptors, which in turn anchors and pulls HSV-1 towards the cell surface3. Then gD receptors binds with cell surface HveA receptors which induces fusion of the envelope into the plasma membrane, therefore releasing tegument proteins and the icosahedral capsid. Tegument proteins immediately shuts down the host’s cellular processes as well as activates viral transcription. The capsid travels to the nucleus and begins association with the nuclear pore. Linear dsDNA along with some tegument proteins are release inside the nucleus, which initiates immediate early gene transcription4. Linear dsDNA is circularized by host’s cellular DNA repair enzymes.
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...has a unique process of DNA replication called rolling circle replication and assembly of new viruses happens in the nucleus. Most HSV-1 infections goes away with time if no treatment is used and only encephalitis is one of the rare disease that can be fatal. Interestingly HSV-1 with HIV-1 infection cause more frequent reactivation of HSV-1 infection.
1. Baeton, Jared. "HSV Herpes Simplex Virus and HIV-1". 3/30/2010
2. Friedman, HM. "Immune evasion by herpes simplex virus type 1, strategies for virus survival". Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2003: 103-112.
3. Salvaggio, Michelle. "Herpes Simplex Virus". 3/30/2010
4. Wagner, Edward. "Herpes simplex virus Research". 3/30/2010
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