Opercular pumping is a mechanism utilized by certain fish for gas exchange. An opercular pump is used to pump water through the gills in an almost continuous unidirectional flow (SHSU). A dual pump is used in tandem in order to drive the unidirectional flow, both a buccal cavity and opercular cavity work simultaneously. The oral valve along the buccal cavity opens, allowing an influx of water. This influx of water causes an expansion of the opercular cavity, dropping the pressure (Hall). Water then enters into the opercular cavity and flows out due to opercular cavity compression. This compression pumps water out which leaves fresh air in the buccal cavity to be brought to the lungs for respiration. Lungfish utilize a different method of gas exchange; gulping ventilation. Gulping ventilation in lungfishes is an adaptation that uses simple lungs. These lungs are formed from the swim bladder. Air breathing fish swim to surface if water is low in oxygen, but can use opercular gas exchange when it is favorable to do so. These fish fill the buccal cavity with air and force the air into gas bladders which move air into the pharynx. Excess air is forced out through the operculum (Hall). Air-breathing fish and amphibians both utilize a gulping ventilation technique, but each is somewhat different. Air-breathing fish generally utilize a two-stroke breathing mechanism. This two-stroke mechanism means that both inhalation and exhalation happen during the expansion of a single buccal cavity (Brainerd et al). Many terrestrial toads and frogs also utilize this two-stroke method, while some aquatic amphibians utilize a four-stroke pump. This four-stroke buccal pump involves an expansion and compression twice for each respiratory cycle (Brainer...
... middle of paper ...
...ht ventricle moves blood into the pulmonary trunk which then separates blood into the left and right pulmonary arteries (Axellson, Franklin). During diving, crocodiles develop a slight bradycardia and develop a right to left shunt once right ventricular pressure rises to a certain threshold. Resting rates of oxygen consumption are maintained and muscular lactate levels do not increase (Grigg). This ability to dive for extended periods of time is made possible by right to left shunting by way of the foramen of Panizza, in addition to the ability to maintain muscular lactate levels. Crocodilian hearts have the ability to keep oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the heart. Blood pressures are also kept higher in the systemic circuit than the pulmonary circuit (Grigg). These heart adaptations are not seen in other reptiles, but rather in mammalian and avian hearts.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- .1.3 Catalytic hydrocracking Hydrocracking is hydrogen addition process. With the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst, the process changes high molecular weight feed stocks, gas oil from the ADU/VDU, the FCC, and the delayed coking, to lower molecular weight products, gasoline, jet fuels, and diesel. The process consists mainly of a reactor, hydrogen separator to recycle the unreacted hydrogen, fractionator, and heating and cooling system. The products depend on the hydrogen severity, mode of operation, such as naphtha maximum gasoline mode, maximum ATK mode (jet fuel) or maximum diesel fuel.... [tags: Petroleum, Oil refinery, Naphtha, Gasoline]
1348 words (3.9 pages)
- ... It was subsequently dried in vacuum at 80°C. The Pt/C catalysts treated differently were denoted by Pt/C−x−Chi, where x is the weight of epichlorohydrin per 1 g of chitosan. 2.3. Fabrication of MEA and measurement of cell performance The procedure used here followed literature [11, 12]. The ink solution for the anode electrode consisted of isopropanol, deionized water, Nafion solution, and the untreated Pt/C in an amount that yielded a platinum loading of 0.5 mgcm−2. The same recipe was applied for the cathode electrode, in which the untreated Pt/C was replaced by the same weight of the treated onereducing the platinum loading to 0.33 ± 0.03 mgcm−2 due to the presence of chitosan.... [tags: energy, source, ploymer, temperature]
749 words (2.1 pages)
Composition of amino acids in strawberry fruits determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization under the influence of CO, NOx and SO2
- Introduction Amino acids are present in almost all foods in different relative items such as fruit juices, syrups, jams, jellies, wines etc. (Silva et al. 2005; Hua et al. 2014). In plant materials the amino acids are found in free form (L-configuration). Among the highly consumed fruits strawberries are widely used throughout the world for different purposes such as preparation of jams, jellies, decorating cakes etc. Due to high consumption, strawberry fruits are widely grown throughout the year irrespective of temperature, light and humidity in green houses by maintaining the temperature due to direct heating system or CO2 fertilizer units.... [tags: Carbon Monoxide, Agriculture, Strawberries]
1434 words (4.1 pages)
- Gas exchange in mammals takes place in the lungs which are internally located within the chest cavity. The lungs are sac-like organs which play one of the main roles in the respiratory system. To begin with, air is breathed in through the nose and mouth. This process of taking air into the system is called inspiration or inhalation. When mammals inhale, their external intercostal muscles contract and the diaphragm (arched set of muscles between thorax and abdomen) located beneath the lungs also contracts, and moves down.... [tags: Respiratory system, Blood, Oxygen, Mucus]
1788 words (5.1 pages)
- There are many interventions I used to help my patient through this difficult time with her diagnosis of CHF and to increase her perfusion. The first set of interventions helps the patient by improving their gas exchange. The first intervention was to apply supplemental oxygen prescribed by the health care provider to make sure that the patients oxygen saturation is at least 90 percent or better. The second intervention was preforming coughing and deep breathing exercises. This is important because it helps with improving oxygenation and preventing a collapse lung from happening.... [tags: Blood, Heart, Artery, Myocardial infarction]
1503 words (4.3 pages)
- ... The inferior vena cava is the vein that transports blood from the lower half of the body, or areas of the body that are below the diaphragm, into the heart (Clinic, 2014). The heart is split into two pumps that are located right next to each other. Each pump works a single blood circuit. The left side of the heart is the systemic circuit and the right side of the heart is the pulmonary circuit. The pulmonary circuit is the blood route that takes the blood from heart to the lungs. Once the exchange of gases is complete in the lungs, the blood is pumped out of the lungs into the left side of the heart.... [tags: blood, circulatory system, nutrients, oxygen]
1502 words (4.3 pages)
- Human Circulation and Gas Exchange The human body requires a constant supply of materials like water, nutrients and oxygen to the billions of cells that help the body to function properly. As cells do their job they produce waste material which has to be taken out of the body. For this to be possible different systems of the human body need to work together. This assignment will describe the internal and external structure of the heart and explain how different systems of the body work together to maintain healthy cells.... [tags: Blood, Heart, Red blood cell, Bone marrow]
2332 words (6.7 pages)
- Penn West is a pretty interesting company. Though it may be suffering through many problems, some investors are being recommended to invest in this company. I’d like to talk about this company and the difficult situation it’s in. At the end I think you should decide whether investing in this company would be worth it. Before we start anything I think it would only make sense if I gave some background information about this company. Penn West is an oil and natural gas production company in Canada.... [tags: Petroleum, Natural gas, New York Stock Exchange]
1536 words (4.4 pages)
- Properties of Gas exchange surfaces Alveolus – Air sac in the lungs • Hundreds of thousands in lungs • Increase lungs SA SA:V ratio = Surface area Volume Diffusion 0.5 cm cube – 2mm cubed of non dyed agar 1cm cube – 5mm cubed of non dyed agar 2cm cube – 18mm cubed of non dyed agar DIFFUSION IS QUICKER WITH SMALLER SA’s Alveoli are so small. • Diffusion is fast - blood capillary nearby • Thin walls (alveoli and capillary) (one cell thick) • Numerous Alveoli – Increases SA of Lungs (Each alveolus is small for quick diffusion) • Lots of blood capillaries next to alveoli • LUNGS = EFFICIENT GAS EXCHANGE SA = rate of diffusion Difference in concentration gradient = Rate of di... [tags: biology, science experiments, ]
1223 words (3.5 pages)
- 3. Interference with gas exchange. Oxygen consumption of the embryo is low. This type of dormancy is still unresolved. 4. Retention of inhibitors. Seed coat prevent the escape of inhibitors from the seed. 5. Inhibitor production. Seed coat and pericaps may contain relatively high concentration of growth inhibitors Embryo dormancy refers to a dormancy that is inherent in the embryo and is not due to any influence of the seed coat or other surrounding tissues. It thought to be due to the presence of inhibitors as well as absence of growth promoters.... [tags: Germination, Seed, Radicle, Embryo]
1835 words (5.2 pages)