Heating Exchange For Gas Exchange Essay

Heating Exchange For Gas Exchange Essay

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Opercular pumping is a mechanism utilized by certain fish for gas exchange. An opercular pump is used to pump water through the gills in an almost continuous unidirectional flow (SHSU). A dual pump is used in tandem in order to drive the unidirectional flow, both a buccal cavity and opercular cavity work simultaneously. The oral valve along the buccal cavity opens, allowing an influx of water. This influx of water causes an expansion of the opercular cavity, dropping the pressure (Hall). Water then enters into the opercular cavity and flows out due to opercular cavity compression. This compression pumps water out which leaves fresh air in the buccal cavity to be brought to the lungs for respiration. Lungfish utilize a different method of gas exchange; gulping ventilation. Gulping ventilation in lungfishes is an adaptation that uses simple lungs. These lungs are formed from the swim bladder. Air breathing fish swim to surface if water is low in oxygen, but can use opercular gas exchange when it is favorable to do so. These fish fill the buccal cavity with air and force the air into gas bladders which move air into the pharynx. Excess air is forced out through the operculum (Hall). Air-breathing fish and amphibians both utilize a gulping ventilation technique, but each is somewhat different. Air-breathing fish generally utilize a two-stroke breathing mechanism. This two-stroke mechanism means that both inhalation and exhalation happen during the expansion of a single buccal cavity (Brainerd et al). Many terrestrial toads and frogs also utilize this two-stroke method, while some aquatic amphibians utilize a four-stroke pump. This four-stroke buccal pump involves an expansion and compression twice for each respiratory cycle (Brainer...


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...ht ventricle moves blood into the pulmonary trunk which then separates blood into the left and right pulmonary arteries (Axellson, Franklin). During diving, crocodiles develop a slight bradycardia and develop a right to left shunt once right ventricular pressure rises to a certain threshold. Resting rates of oxygen consumption are maintained and muscular lactate levels do not increase (Grigg). This ability to dive for extended periods of time is made possible by right to left shunting by way of the foramen of Panizza, in addition to the ability to maintain muscular lactate levels. Crocodilian hearts have the ability to keep oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the heart. Blood pressures are also kept higher in the systemic circuit than the pulmonary circuit (Grigg). These heart adaptations are not seen in other reptiles, but rather in mammalian and avian hearts.

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