The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was tested in the following research articles that were chosen by our group members. Each article will be summarized. The instruments, interventions, and research findings will be reported.
In a 2014 study by Mariana MacPhail, et al., the purpose of this study was to use HAPA, and a HAPA based healthy eating modification, to bring about improved dietary behavior, and healthy outcomes with adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were a total of 87 participants; who consented to participate in the study. They all had attended primary care diabetes clinics in Australia.
One of the instruments was questionnaires at baseline, and at a 4-month follow up. Both were the same; except for demographics. The baseline objective physical measurements included Body Mass Index (BMI), blood pressure, glycemic index, lipid levels.
The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model that was used was one that was adapted from previous studies of dietary behavior and physical activity. The nine predictors are action self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, health/safety risk perception; health/safety expected benefits, barriers to health promotion, maintenance self-efficacy, action/coping planning, health behavior intention, and recovery self-efficacy.
The Diet Guidelines Index (DGI) was used to measure the healthy eating behavior. It is a food based dietary index that measures adherence of one’s healthy eating over the past months. The scoring is 0-150. The higher the score, the greater the level of healthy eating.
The Diabetes Distress Scale is a valid scale that assesses the individual’s emotional response to the illness. The scoring is from 17-102; with higher scores m...
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...ivity recommendations. The conclusion to the study did not support The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) testing predictions.
A study by Hatter et al., (2016) attempted to use The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model and it constructs to predict changes in cardiovascular (lipid values), psychological (depression, anxiety, stress) and body composition (body mass index), in obese and overweight adults, in relations to physical activity. There were 74 self-reported physical activity participants. Outcomes were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12-week cycle. The participants were encouraged to partake in moderate to vigorous activity. The data in this study were supportive of the HAPA hypothesis, however it did show that action planning did not play a role as a mediator that bridges the intention-behavior gap but rather was an independent predictor of behavior.
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