In HCMV there are three phases of gene expression sequence which are immediate early (IE), early (E), and late (L). The IE phase is short and its products are derived from three major genes which are IE1, IE2, and IE3 (Keil et al., 1987). The expression of both E and L genes need the prior expression of one or more IE gene products which function as transcriptional activators (Messerle et al., 1992). Generally the IE genes are responsible for regulating the production of host cell products, the E genes control the production of daughter virions, and the L genes are involved in the synthesis of proteins that form the structural components of the virion (Griffiths & Grundy, 1987). The process of HCM...
... middle of paper ...
...teins (Gibson, 1996). In the maturation process, the nuclear lamina is dissolved to generate delaminated infoldings of the inner nuclear membrane that form long intranuclear tubules (Buser et al., 2007). Nucleocapsids attach to the membranes and obtain a putative primary tegument and a temporary membrane. Then these virions are transported along the intranuclear tubules to the nuclear periphery where it fuses with the outer nuclear membrane (Buser et al., 2007). The primary membrane is later lost throughout de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane resulting in the release of a naked nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The final phase of maturation occurs in the trans-Golgi membrane where the capsid obtains a secondary tegument and undergoes a second envelopment process (Buser et al., 2007). The mature virions are then transported to the plasma membrane for release.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- This study uses a nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (nHA/CS/PLGA) scaffold which is seeded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering in order to allow for repair of bone defects. Tissue engineering uses basic concepts from materials engineering and life sciences and applies them to health care needs in order to design replacement devices with similar morphology and function of injured tissues to allow for tissue repair. A common compound that is used in bone tissue engineering involves PLGA as it is biocompatible, non-toxic, and relatively anti-inflammatory.... [tags: tissue engineering, hydroxyapatite,umbilical cord]
1186 words (3.4 pages)
- In general, a cell can be defined as a stem cell if two basic criteria are met. First, stem cell is capable of self renewal for indefinite period throughout life while maintaining undifferentiated state, i.e., the cell can divide and produce two identical daughter cells and thereby maintains the stem cell pool. Second, stem cell possesses capacity for differentiate into specialised and functional progeny under the right conditions, or given the right signals. It may divide asymmetrically to yield an identical cell and a daughter cell that acquires a particular cell type’s properties, such as morphology, phenotype and functional physiology that classified it belongs to a particular tissue (Bu... [tags: Science, Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, ]
610 words (1.7 pages)
- ... Most of the chemical reactions of the cell take place in the cytoplasm. The “powerhouse” or the “energy generators” of both plant and animal cells are the mitochondria. These substances convert the sugar and other organic molecules in the cell to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – required as a source of energy for the chemical reactions of a cell. Furthermore, both cells have a cell membrane. The cell membrane is like the guard to a cell and controls what enters and leaves it. It is responsible for the absorption of important nutrients (e.g.... [tags: structures, cells, powerhouse]
605 words (1.7 pages)
- ... Plastids are also located in a plant cell. They are organelles that store and make compounds inside a plant cell. A chloroplast is the most important plastid inside a plant cell. The chloroplast makes light energy from the sun light and makes into sugars and oxygen. Chloroplasts helps make the food and oxygen that humans need everyday. Plant cells have a large central vacuole. The plant cells are able to push water into the vacuoles and then produces turgor preasure which reinforces the plant and makes it rigid.... [tags: nucleus, energym ribsomes, cells]
522 words (1.5 pages)
- ... They are less mature than adult stem cells but more mature than embryonic stem cells (Freedman 10). There is a lot of research being done about stem cells today. Scientists try to figure out what tissues can be made from stem cells and how to reproduce the cells best. A lot of this research is done in vitro (out of the body) in labs. Learning how stem cells change into different cells can give us the ability to stimulate stem cells in labs to form tissue. It could lead us to being able to change stem cells in the body to specific cells (Freedman 12).... [tags: disorder, cells, change, osteoblast]
709 words (2 pages)
- Human Embryonic Stem cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells are two modern methods of research; and treatment being aimed at the treatment of cancer, and many degenerative and genetic diseases. Stem cells are cells with the ability to develop into a cell of a different type, some types of stem cells are able to differentiate or change into a cell which is specific and functional to a specific tissue or organ system. This unique ability is what many scientists are trying to focus towards regeneration of different tissues, or the creation of new tissue to help cure, or treat diseases like cancer, multiple sclerosis, and alzheimer's.... [tags: stem cells, human embryonic, cells]
964 words (2.8 pages)
- “Now science has presented us with a hope called stem research, which may provide our scientists with many answers that have for so long been beyond our grasp.” The words of former first lady Nancy Reagan unerringly illustrate the potential of stem cell research throughout the world. Throughout the existence of the human race, we have constantly uncovered the unknown. Learning everything there is to know about ourselves has led to a huge library of useful knowledge that continues to grow. By analyzing the human body, we have been able cure many injuries and illnesses, but not all of them.... [tags: science, organs, tissue, embryonic cells]
1723 words (4.9 pages)
- In the past two decades, many technological and scientific advances have been made in order to make life easier for many people who suffer from cancer, disease and sickness. Among these advances there is something revolutionary called stem cells. Stem cells can help restore and regenerate almost all parts of the human body such as the heart, kidney, liver, and many other organs. Although stem cells offer a lot, there are many views against and for stem cells, and among these views lies the debate of whether stem cells should be legalized or not (NIH 2).... [tags: Stem Cells, argumentative, persuasive, medicine]
1329 words (3.8 pages)
- Stem cells research has been a very disputed topic among the US. There has been ethical issues concerning stem cell research and has caused friction in its track to its full potential. These ethical issues include the concern of moral status of embryos, in which stem cells are made of and the doomed embryos ands. Religion plays a huge role in the stem cell debate concerning issues with their religion. Several scientist that have been researching stem cells have agreed that stem cells have great potential to cure several harmful diseases like diabetes as well as cancer.Stem cell research should have an increase in its budget and less restricted to further help the research of potential cures... [tags: human embryonic, stem cells, embryos]
1560 words (4.5 pages)
- Content 1. Introduction 2. The unique properties of stem cells and the ways of reception. 3. The application of stem cells in curing the worldwide diseases. i. The effectiveness of using stem cells in diabetes treatment and possible risks of this therapy. ii. What are the benefits and risks of using stem cells in curing cardiac disorders, such as ischemic disease and stroke. iii. How neural disorders, such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and spinal cord injuries can be treated by stem cells and what are the fears about application of this therapy on human.... [tags: Ethical Issues, Embryonic Stem Cells]
1555 words (4.4 pages)