The Harlem Renaissance

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William Edward Burghardt DuBois was a writer, co-founder of the NAACP, and leading intellectual of the twentieth century (Haskins 32). Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts in 1868, he attended Fisk University (an all black college) and Harvard University (84). He was a member of the “New Negro Movement.” (Howes 12) DuBois believed in pan-Africanism or the sharing of racial values; blacks around the world should fight against white colonialism while promoting black nationalism and integrating with American society. He speculated that military service was a way for blacks to gain their full rights to citizenship (Haskins 32). DuBois’ most notable work, The Souls of Black Folk (1903), was a collection of essays documenting the historical and social truths of the American Negro (Howes 13). He was amongst the first to ask for unconditional equal rights despite race (173). He found that “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line,” in his attempt to resolve this segregation he, along with white reformers, created the NAACP (Watson 19). The NAACP was the strongest and longest-lived African American organization of the twentieth century. DuBois was the only black member on the board of directors. He was elected as the Director of Publicity and Research; immediately after he founded and became editor of the Crisis (Howes 177). Here DuBois discussed his lacking of patience for the negro movement (13). At its peak in 1919, 95,000 people were reading the magazine (Watson 18). The middle-class were the main subscribers. Ironically most middle-class readers argued against DuBois. They feared that too radical of movements would cause an unraveling of liberties and slavery would once again rise. It would... ... middle of paper ... ... The Harlem Renaissance. Ed. A Haights Cross Communications. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2004. Campbell, Mary Schmidt, et al. Harlem Renaissance Art of Black America. Ed. Charles Miers. New York: Abradale Press Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , 1987. Haskins, Jim. The Harlem Renaissance. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1996. Howes, Kelly King. Harlem Renaissance. Ed. Christine Slovey. Detroit: UXL, 2001. Martin, Patricia Sullivan. "Tulsa Race Riot of 1921." Civil Rights in the United States. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. U.S. History in Context. Web. 11 May 2014. Moore, John Hartwell. "NAACP." Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 335-342. U.S. History in Context. Web. 11 May 2014. Watson, Steven. The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920-1930. First Edition. New York: Pantheon Books, 1995.

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