Task 1.2 Explain the hardware, software and peripheral components of a computer system and the functional relation between these components.
Hardware refers to tangible objects like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, power supply and system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips). The motherboard store many components (microprocessor, RAM, controller…) and connect every other equipment. The microprocessor is the brain of the computer also known as CPU (Central Processing Unit) and will process the calculations and instructions of the computer.
The CPU deals with each instruction as follow; first the instruction will be found in the memory, the instruction will then be decoded, the data will be transferred and then the instruction will be executed as requested. The speed that the CPU will do this will depend on what the maximum speeds of the CPU are; this is known as the clock rate. . The higher the clock rate on a CPU the faster it will carry out instructions that the computer has requested the slower the clock rate the slower it will do this. The CPU is capable to fetch an instruction, decode it and then execute it. This is all it does, all day long.
In contrast to Hardware, Software is untouchable (computer instructions or data). Anything that can be stored electronically is software, in contrast to storage devices and display devices which are called hardware.
Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words ...
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... performance of the computer and vice versa.
4. A Hard disk space filled with data will use most of the memory leaving less memory for the operations of the processor.
5. Multiple applications running on the computer tend to slow down the performance of the computer because memory is used to support more than one application.
6. Type of graphic card, the more powerful the graphic card is the faster the performance of the computer.
7. Defragmenting files: Broken Files will slow down the performance of the computer.
8. Too many software installed on a computer can also affect its performance. PC speed and responsiveness can be slow went running more than one program as it can lead to system conflicts that slow everything down.
9. The transfer of data to and from a peripheral device can reduce computer’s performances as it performs at slower speed than the CPU.
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