Essay on Growth And Reproduction Of Eukaryotes Depend On The Cellular Life Cycle

Essay on Growth And Reproduction Of Eukaryotes Depend On The Cellular Life Cycle

Length: 1280 words (3.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

1.1 Cell cycle
Growth and reproduction of eukaryotes depend on the cellular life cycle (cell cycle) whereby the cell duplicates its components to physically split into two identical daughter cells. In general, the cell cycle is divided into two phases: interphase where cell growth and DNA replication takes place, and mitosis where the duplicated DNA is divided into two daughter cells.The interphase of the cell cycle is further sub-divided into three discrete phases: G1, S and G2. During interphase, the cell is metabolically active and has distinct biochemical processes that prepares the cells for the cell division.
G1 phase ( or gap 1 phase) of the cell cycle corresponds to the gap between mitosis and initiation of DNA replication in the subsequent S phase (synthesis phase). G1 is most often the longest phase of the cell cycle during which the cell grows continuously and makes proteins that are required for DNA replication. In S phase, all the chromosomes are replicated following which histones and other proteins are recruited to the chromosomes to form sister chromatids. The sister chromatids are joined by a common region known as centromere and to ensure faithful DNA segregation, the sister chromatids remain physically connected to each other with the help of cohesins, from the time of their synthesis in S phase until late M phase (or mitosis) (reviewed in [8]). Outside nucleus, centrosome, the microtubule organising centre of the cells, also duplicates to form two centrosomes. The S phase of the cell cycle is immediately followed by G2 phase (or gap 2 phase) where the cell prepares itself for mitosis by synthesizing variety of protein that are required during the next phase.
2 Introduction 1.1.1 Mitosis
Mitosis is the most dram...


... middle of paper ...


...early stages of DNA synthesis and during the late stages of DNA replication, CDK2 is subsequently activated by S-phase cyclins (cyclin A) to drive the transition from S to the G2 phase [9].
Finally, at the onset of mitosis, S-phase cyclins are degraded and CDK1–cyclin B becomes active as a result of dephosphorylation of specific threonine and tyrosine residues within the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site of CDK1 (reviewed in [3]). The CDK1–cyclin B complex governs most the mitotic processes like separation of centrosomes, spindle pole formation, chromosome condensation, microtubule kinetochore attachment and cytokinesis and hence this complex is also known as M phase-promoting factor (MPF). Upon, mitotic exit, the CDK1–cyclin B complex is inactivated from the proteolytic destruction of the cyclin B through a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic degradation process.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Cellular Energy And Energy Metabolism Essay

- There are many cellular processes through which animals must endure in order to what they are supposed to do. Animals withstand procedures such as cellular energy, or energy metabolism, how they grow, how they reproduce, and how they provide new variation throughout each generation. There are many reasons to why all these processes define biological life. One of the many reasons biological life is possible is because of energy metabolism. Electron carriers play a crucial role for energy metabolism....   [tags: Cell cycle, Mitosis, Chromosome, Eukaryote]

Better Essays
1009 words (2.9 pages)

Essay on Transcription Of Eukaryotes ( E. Coli ) And Eukaryotes

- Transcription of prokaryotes (E. coli) and eukaryotes (Homo sapiens) share some fundamental structures, namely RNA polymerases, and control mechanisms necessary to convert DNA to RNA, but the transcription process for H. sapiens is more complex as is demanded by the nature of the product organism. The following will be an examination of the common structures and control mechanisms shared by E. coli and H. sapiens, while also highlighting the differences that make up the processes of each organism....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Transcription, Promoter]

Better Essays
2760 words (7.9 pages)

We All Need Some Cellular Respiration Essay

- Every living thing needs cellular respiration to survive. Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. This process happens through three distinct operations which are glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Throughout these cycles, our bodies turn oxygen and glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Although this system seems simple enough, cellular respiration can not take place in just one step because all of the energy from glucose would be released at once, most of it being lost in the form of light and heat....   [tags: Cellular Respiration, ]

Better Essays
521 words (1.5 pages)

Essay on Cellular Respiration : A Common Phenomenon During Exercise

- Cellular respiration is an important function for the body to obtain energy (Citovsky, Lecture 18). There are two types of cellular respiration; aerobic conditions and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions are the cellular respiration occurred with oxygen while anaerobic conditions are cellular respiration occurred without oxygen. The most common cellular respiration is aerobic conditions where oxygen were supplied for phosphorylation (Campbell et al., pg 177). In human body, anaerobic conditions occurred when muscle cells are overworked and oxygen is depleted before it could be replenished (Citovsky, Lecture 19)....   [tags: Cellular respiration, Metabolism]

Better Essays
956 words (2.7 pages)

Essay on Questions and Anwers on DNA and Molecules

- Question1 What are Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are known to be the organisms which have double membrane or membrane bounded, such as the nucleus, mitochondria than in plant cell this will include chloroplast, examples of this eukaryotes are, animals, plants, fungi and protozoans. Genome is defined as entire genetic material of an individual. All eukaryotes have mitochondrial genome of which it is very small in size and circular in shape, meaning that depend on the organism the genome will vary in size since others are small, so the specific size normally range from 10Mb in length to 100 000 Mb in higher eukaryotes....   [tags: eukaryotes, genomes]

Better Essays
2593 words (7.4 pages)

Degradation of mRNA in Eukaryotes Essay example

- INTRODUCTION Unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, have to be able to react and respond to the changes in environment. Nutrient starvation, temperature change and different alterations in environment require the cell to respond by producing various proteins, which then take action in controlling the response mechanisms. Eukaryotic cells of a multicellular organism have different phenotypes and perform different functions even if their DNA code is completely identical. For example, the lymphocytes of the immune system are the only cells in an organism to produce the antibodies, while red blood cells are the only cells making haemoglobin, the protein which transports the oxygen....   [tags: Medical Research]

Better Essays
1514 words (4.3 pages)

Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Essay

- Distinct characteristics are not only an end result of the DNA sequence but also of the cell’s internal system of expression orchestrated by different proteins and RNAs present at a given time. DNA encodes for many possible characteristics, but different types of RNA aided by specialized proteins sometimes with external signals express the needed genes. Control of gene expression is of vital importance for an eukaryote’s survival such as the ability of switching genes on/off in accordance with the changes in the environment (Campbell and Reece, 2008)....   [tags: DNA Sequence, Nucleotides]

Better Essays
933 words (2.7 pages)

Plant Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration Essay

- 1. Explain why the following statement is incorrect. Plants perform photosynthesis, but only animals perform cellular respiration. It is true that plants perform photosynthesis. What it is not true, it is that only animals perform cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process in which an organism obtains its energy. All living organisms perform cellular respiration, whether they are plants or animals. For instance, every cell in an animal requires oxygen to perform cellular respiration which gives off carbon dioxide and water as waste products....   [tags: Metabolism, Cellular respiration, Glucose]

Better Essays
1073 words (3.1 pages)

My Lab on Cellular Respiration Essay

- Cellular respiration also known as oxidative metabolism is important to convert biochemical energy from nutrients in the cells of living organisms to useful energy known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Without cellular respiration living organisms would not be able to sustain life simply because nutrients would not metabolize in a productive manner. Cellular respirations was implemented in this laboratory by measuring the amount of O2 consumed/used by inserting respirometers that consisted of germinating and non-germinating peas into room temperature baths and low temperature baths....   [tags: Cellular respiration, science experiments,]

Better Essays
561 words (1.6 pages)

Essay on Cellular Phones

- Cellular Phones Cellular phones are a phenomenon that has engulfed people in the nineties. They have become a common occurrence whether you are waiting in line at the super market or in a movie theatre. One professor at Murray State University said, “Many students are carrying them, I had a student get a call in the middle of a test last semester.” Although many people have accepted the thought of carrying a telephone wherever they go, others have not taken the onslaught of cell phones quite so easily....   [tags: Mobile Cell Cellular Telephones Phones Essays]

Free Essays
1011 words (2.9 pages)