According to Erikson, children of this age tend to demonstrate a wide range of emotions; they tend to be dominating, uninhibited, and self-loving. Sometimes the child is very loving and wants to be close, and at other times, he or she will bite, pinch, or do other physical harm to another person and show no sign of guilt or shame. This is due to the fact that a toddler has little self-control over their exploratory or sadistic impulses (as cited in Murray et al., 2009).
A toddler is slow to realize that he or she cannot have everything they desire and that some behavior is unacceptable. They experiment in the quest for independence, but find certain experiences and consequences frightening; and will run to their parents for protection, security, approval and reassurance. Erikson also taught that the need for attention and approval is one of the main motivations in the development of the ego and socialization. Toddlers will often repeat behavior and performances that are met with attention and laughed at. The child enjoys giving performances and pleases him or herself just as much as they do the audience (Murray et al., 2009).
Piaget noted in his Cognitive Theory, that toddlers between the ages of eight...
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...s most visited site about children's health. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/ida
Murray, R. B., & Zentner, J. P. (2009). Health promotion strategies through the life span (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Physical Appearance and Growth: Your 2 Year Old. (n.d.). HealthyChildren.org. Retrieved March 24, 2014, from http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/toddler/pages/Physical-Appearance-and-Growth-Your-2-Year-Od.aspx
Toddler milestone: Socialization. (n.d.). BabyCenter. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.babycenter.com/0_toddler-milestone-socialization_11742.bc
University of Rochester Medical Center. (n.d.). University of Rochester Medical Center. Retrieved March 22, 2014, from http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/Encyclopedia/Content.aspx?ContentTypeID=90&ContentID=P01792
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