Essay PreviewMore ↓
Nearly all pilots have experienced a strange phenomenon during landing. While everything is happening as it should during decent, a 'cushion' of air gets trapped below the wing during the last few meters to the runway. This throws off the rate of decent and can be dangerous if the pilot has already begun to flare up and decelerate for landing. This means the plane would climb again while slowing down, which would easily lead to a stall.
However, pilots who are aware of this effect can use it to their advantage. Pilots during World War II who had fuel leaks flew scant meters off the ground, conserving fuel until safe territory was reached.
This effect is not really caused by a cushion of air at all, rather, by vortices of air off the tips of the wings.
For a plane to create lift, its wings must create low pressure on top and high pressure on the bottom. However, at the tips of the wings, the high pressure pushes and the low pressure pulls air onto the top of the wing, reducing lift and creating a current flowing to the top. This current remains even after the wing has left the area, producing really awesome vortices.
This flow of air reduces the high pressure and increases the low pressure systems, thus reducing lift and increasing induced drag a great deal. However, once the plane nears the ground (usually half of the distance from the wingtip to fuselage) this flow is significantly reduced. Therefore, the lift is significantly increased. This is the ground effect.
Creative engineers can take advantage of the ground effect and create craft called Ekranoplans. These were gigantic boat planes built by the Soviet Union during the Cold War to transport large amounts of material quickly. These planes could only fly in the ground effect (over water, ice, or flat ground) but were very efficient.
How to Cite this Page
"Ground Effect." 123HelpMe.com. 28 Feb 2020
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Comparing Cultures in Heaney's Opened Ground and Roy's The God of Small Things Many authors use experience in their lives to influence their writing. In the cases of Seamus Heaney and Arundati Roy, the experiences in their life and the experience that their countries went through shape their poems and stories in unimaginable ways. For example, Heaney puts into his poetry many experiences that his country, Ireland, went through. These experiences include the rise of war in Ireland between the Catholics and the Protestants and also the influence that England has on the situation in Ireland.... [tags: Opened Ground]
1424 words (4.1 pages)
- Rates of homicides increased by 53% in the states with Stand Your Ground laws, while states without the laws decreased 5% (Mayors Against). Can Stand Your Ground laws ever have a positive effect on this country. Stand Your Ground laws allow a person to take any measures in order to defend themselves. To be more specific, fire a gun, even if the person has a chance to retreatretrieve or the situation can be avoided. This can result in many issues for everyone. Stand Your Ground Laws are unethical and all Americans should be against them in order to eliminate them.... [tags: Murder, Law, Criminal law, Police]
1741 words (5 pages)
- Introduction: I chose this project because soccer is one of the things I love to do. Soccer is one of the most popular sports across the whole world. In soccer being able to curve a soccer ball is very helpful for multiple reasons. One reason is to bend a ball around the a wall of players. Second to possibly score an amazing goal. And last of all to make a simple pass around a defender to a teammate. Anybody that plays soccer and enjoys it probably knows about the famous Roberto Carlos free kick.... [tags: Laws of Motion, Magnus Effect]
1103 words (3.2 pages)
- Gender Violence: The Hunting Ground The Hunting Ground, directed by is a documentary that reveals the country’s lack of involvement with sexual assault cases on college campuses. Domestic and sexual violence creates power and dominance over individuals by making them feel inferior. “Kirby Dick is an Academy Award-nominated and two-time Emmy Award-winning documentary film director. His most recent feature, The Invisible War, a groundbreaking investigation into the epidemic of rape within the U.S.... [tags: Rape, Sexual intercourse, Assault, Gender studies]
984 words (2.8 pages)
- “Daddy, am I next?” were the first words heard by Nathan Scovens (Preacher at Galilee Missionary Baptist Church) from his twelve year old son after the not-guilty verdict of George Zimmerman was delivered to world (Scherer, et al). George Zimmerman a white adult male who shot and killed an unarmed black teen. Trayvon Martin (teen) was simply walking home from a convenience store, in a predominantly white neighborhood when Zimmerman approached him. Trayvon Martin fell at the hands of George Zimmerman, after an altercation.... [tags: Law, Police, KILL, Plato]
866 words (2.5 pages)
- Global Warming is due to the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It results from the fact that certain atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet by being able to absorb longwave radiation from the Earth's surface. Without the greenhouse effect, life on this planet would probably not exist as the average temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18 degrees Celsius, rather than the present 15 degrees Celsius.... [tags: Greenhouse Effect Climate Change]
1492 words (4.3 pages)
- Today, people use their own personal vehicles to travel more than ever before. Personal transportation is no longer considered a luxury; it is now considered a necessity. The number of cars in the United States has been growing steadily since the 1970s. The number of miles traveled by cars has risen nearly 150 percent, yet the United States population has only grown roughly 40 percent during that time (hybridcars.com, Driving Trends). Although it may seem like we are advancing into the future, in reality, we are moving backwards from the effects these vehicles have on our bodies and the environment.... [tags: Cars Cause Effect Ecology Essays Papers]
1905 words (5.4 pages)
- Figure-Ground Segmentation Several studies have examined that in figure-ground segmentation processes, attention to certain regions tends to cause those regions to be perceived as closer to the observer (Huang & Pashler, 2009). In this experiment we propose that the attention effect can be reversed and that the visual system will choose the interpretation according to the simplicity of the attended regions. The visual system has the ability to detect three-dimensional structures in the absence of mapping between properties.... [tags: Mapping]
2196 words (6.3 pages)
- Cause and Effect Essay - Factory Farms Cause Sickness and Pollution There is little doubt that animals raised on small-scale diverse farms are apt to be healthier. When allowed to range freely, particularly in organically maintained yards and pastures, they receive more exercise, their diet is more varied and they are exposed to commensal bacteria that help exclude, and build resistance to, harmful pathogens. Some organic practitioners also argue that free-ranging animals actively seek out plants with medicinal properties that can build their resistance to illness, When Livestock production is carried out on a scale that suits the global market, however, huge numbers of animals are kept i... [tags: Expository Cause Effect Essays]
1227 words (3.5 pages)
- Dillion said, “Goodbye, me old son.” His hand found the silenced Walther at his waistband under the tunic at his back, it swung up and he fired twice, each bullet striking Marco in the heart and driving him back. We can see from the previous, that the novel, On Dangerous Ground, is not your average book. On the contrary, it’s the opposite, because it’s filled with murder, betrayal, and lies. This suspenseful novel has a great plot, intriguing characters, and is recommended for young and old adults.... [tags: essays research papers]
540 words (1.5 pages)
One way to combat vortices is to attach winglets, vertical extensions of the tip of the wings. This helps to prevent high pressure from spilling into the low-pressure area. This would stop wingtip vortices and induced drag caused by them. On some planes, this puts too much stress on the wing to justify their use.
"aero". The WIG Page
"Ground Effect". Wikipedia
"Induced Drag". Professionalpilot
Rozhdestvensky, Kirill V. Aerodynamics of a lifting system
in extreme ground effect. New York: Springer, 2000.
"Section 7 Commentary". Robyn Stewart
"Wingtip Vortices". Wikipedia