The first example in which attorneys and witnesses manipulate expectations is through implicature. Grice defined the concept of an “implicature” as something different from the literal meaning of the sentences uttered that occurs when participants of a conversation are observing the CP. Grice defined four basic rules falling under the Cooperative Principle:
1. Maxim of Quality – Be truthful
2. Maxim of Quan...
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Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and Conversation. In A. P. Martinich (Ed.). The Philosophy of Language (pp. 171-181). New York: Oxford University Press.
Searle, J. R. (1975). Indirect Speech Acts. In A. P. Martinich (Ed.). The Philosophy of Language (pp. 182-195). New York: Oxford University Press.
Shuy, R.W. (2005). Creating Language Crimes: How Law Enforcement Uses (and Misuses) Language. New York: Oxford University Press.
Shuy, R.W. (1993). Language Crimes: The Use and Abuse of Language Evidence in the Courtroom. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Solan, L. M. and Tiersma, P. M. (2005). “Consensual” Searches. Speaking of Crime: The Language of Criminal Justice (pp. 35-52). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tiersma, Peter. (1999). The Language of Perjury, Retrieved from http://www.languageandlaw.org/PERJURY.HTM
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