Essay on Graphene: Properties, Applications and Synthesis Methods

Essay on Graphene: Properties, Applications and Synthesis Methods

Length: 3164 words (9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Research Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Introduction
Graphene has received great mass media coverage since Geim and Novoselov published their foundlings about monocrystalline graphitic films in 2004, which won them the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010. (Novoselov et al, 2004) It has been described as the wonder substance or super material by the mass media, not only because it is the thinnest material ever known and the strongest ever measured, but also due to its excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. It has high specific surface area, high chemical stability, high optical transmittance, high elasticity, high porosity, tunable band gap, and ease of chemical functionalization which helps in tuning its properties (Geim et al, 2007) Moreover, graphene has a multitude of amazing properties such as half-integer room-temperature quantum Hall effect (Novoselov et al, 2007), long-range ballistic transport with almost ten times greater electron mobility than that of silicon, and availability of charge carriers that behave as massless relativistic quasi particle, known as Dirac fermions. (Geim et al, 2007) The outstanding electrical conductivity and the transparency and flexibility of graphene-based material have led to research and development of some future technologies, such as flexible and wearable electronics. In addition, graphene can also be used for efficient energy storage materials, polymer composites, and transparent electrodes. (Geim et al, 2007) This paper presents a
2
brief overview on the structure and some properties of graphene, along with a presentation of graphene synthesis method and various applications.
Structure
Graphene refers to a single layer of graphite, with sp2 hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal...


... middle of paper ...


...structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene." Science 320.5881 (2008): 1308-1308.
19. Novoselov, Kostya S., et al. "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films." science 306.5696 (2004): 666-669.
20. P. Sutter, Nat. Mater., 2009, 8, 171–172
21. Partoens, B., and F. M. Peeters. "From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the K point." Physical Review B 74.7 (2006): 075404.
22. Rao, C. emsp14N emsp14R, et al. "Graphene: The New Two‐Dimensional Nanomaterial." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48.42 (2009): 7752-7777.
23. S. Alwarappan, S. Boyapalle, A. Kumar, C.-Z. Li and S. Mohapatra, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 6556–6559
24. Ujjal Kumar Sur, “Graphene: A Rising Star on the Horizon of Materials Science,” International Journal of Electrochemistry, vol. 2012, Article ID 237689, 12 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/237689


Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Cycloaddition of Dichlorocarbene onto Finite-Size Graphene Sheets: DFT Study

- Unique properties and perfect structures of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) predetermine their great influence on nanotechnologies. These nanoclusters demonstrate outstanding mechanical, physical, chemical, electronic and optical properties and have attracted enormous attention of researchers worldwide [1-7]. Graphene, planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, is the fundamental component of graphite and carbon nanotubes. The discovery of Geim and Novoselov in 2004 [8] has generated intense activity on graphene research....   [tags: energy, graphene, properties]

Research Papers
714 words (2 pages)

Graphene's Extraordinary Properties Essays

- Graphene is a form of carbon which has recently been receiving a great deal of attention. Some have come to call it “the wonder material” due to its many extraordinary properties. Although isolated in 2004, graphene's properties had been calculated decades earlier. It consists of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. A single sheet of graphene is stronger than steel and yet remains very flexible, retaining all of its properties despite being bent and unbent multiple times....   [tags: Carbon, Wonder Material]

Research Papers
2189 words (6.3 pages)

Essay on Graphene Supercapacitors

- Today I will be doing my technology research paper on the technology behind graphene supercapacitor. This is a very hot topic right now because a graphene supercapacitor is a very new technology. Scientist discovered how to create graphene in the early 1800’s however it has only been in the last couple years that they learned how to mass-produce graphene and how to create a supercapacitor from it. Which is a very good thing because the only technological bottleneck is a battery. Which is a very good thing because the biggest bottleneck currently would be batteries....   [tags: Graphene History, Uses, Benefits]

Research Papers
609 words (1.7 pages)

Essay Graphene and Its Properties

- Graphene and its Properties Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and the fifteenth most abundant on Earth. It is the sixth element on the Periodic Table of Elements with four valence electrons that are used to bond with other atoms. Atoms tend to fill their outer shell with eight valence electrons to remain stable. This leads to atoms sharing or exchanging electrons to satisfy that requirement. This property lends to the versatile nature of carbon and explains the numerous forms that it comes in and why carbon is essential for all living organisms....   [tags: physical chemistry, carbon]

Research Papers
1130 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on The Biological Method Of Quantum Dot Synthesis

- DISCUSSION The biological method of quantum dot synthesis using F. oxysporum has been proven to successfully synthesize highly photostable and luminescent QDs in an environmentally friendly manner. However, in order to increase the demand for biological methods of production, the yield of QDs synthesized by this method must be increased. This study considers several factors that affect QD synthesis by fungi and modifies them in F. oxysporum in order to increase QD yield. The fungus, F. oxysporum, was treated with osmolarity, pH, heat shock, and light intensity conditions and the resulting QD yields were compared to that of their individual controls, which were synthesized under the commonly...   [tags: Sodium hydroxide, PH, Synthesis, Base]

Research Papers
1161 words (3.3 pages)

An Investigation into the Identification, Properties, and Synthesis of an Unknown Ionic Compound

- Abstract This paper describes the methods used in the identification, investigation of properties, and synthesis of an unknown compound. The compound was identified as calcium nitrate by a variety of tests. When the compound was received, it was already known to be one of twelve possible ionic compounds. The flame test identified the presence of the calcium anion in the compound. The compound tested positive for the nitrate cation using the iron sulfate test. At this point it was hypothesized that the compound was calcium nitrate....   [tags: Research Analysis]

Research Papers
1163 words (3.3 pages)

Essay on Understanding the Hydrogenation of Graphene

- Since its discovery in 2004 [1], Graphene has attracted a great deal of attention due to its remarkable structural and electronic properties[2]. However, one of its main drawbacks is the lack of a gap in its electronic structure, which can limit its electronic applications. My advisor, Jorge Sofo theorized graphane in 2007[3], which is essentially a 2D hydrocarbon with one hydrogen atom attached to each carbon within the graphene lattice. This opens an insulating gap within the electronic structure, and graphane’s creation was shown to be energetically favorable....   [tags: Research Analysis]

Research Papers
824 words (2.4 pages)

One-step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Casein Peptides Essay

- This study demonstrates a facile, one−pot preparation of casein hydrolytic peptides (CHPs)–conjugated crystalline AuNPs having average core size about 20 ±10 nm and morphology found to be hexagonal shaped. The CHPs are competent to form the monolayer on the AuNPs surface resulting electrostatic interparticles interaction, and plays an important role in stability for long periods of time (12 months). The X−ray photoelectron (XPS) spectrum, showed a strong peak for the pure ‘Au’ phase. The FTIR spectrum indicated that the electrostatic capping of the CHPs, which drives the formation of organic−inorganic CHPs−AuNPs composite....   [tags: casein hydrolytic,biotechnology,nano synthesis]

Research Papers
1178 words (3.4 pages)

Graphene Channel Fabrication Essay

- In graphene channel FETs (referred to as GFETs), Si is used as substrate. Several layers of graphene held together by vander-waal's forces constitute Graphite. A stack of graphene layers of 1-5 nm thick called exfoilated graphene, is used as channel material [9,11]. These layers are extracted from graphite using an adhesive tape that sticks to the graphite material, and is then peeled off. This process is done repetitively until single or multiple layers of graphene remain on the tape....   [tags: substrate, semiconductor]

Research Papers
797 words (2.3 pages)

Protein Synthesis Essay

- Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes. To start off, a protein is made in a ribosome. There are many cellular mechanisms involved with protein synthesis. Before the process of protein synthesis can be described, a person must know what proteins are made out of. There are four basic levels of protein organization. The first is primary structure, followed by secondary structure, then tertiary structure, and the last level is quaternary structure. Once someone understands the makeup of a protein, they can then begin to learn how elements can combine and go from genes to protein....   [tags: Protein Synthesis Biology DNA Essays]

Research Papers
787 words (2.2 pages)