Maritime security traditionally focuses on maritime disputes, naval competition, Sea lines of communication (SLOCs), War at sea . The modern maritime securities after the cold war and 9/11 have been significantly changing and more complex, which is involving worldwide collaboration and mutual understanding .
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC) has been managing maritime issues fundamentally for years and acceptable as the basic convention on solving maritime dilemmas. Not only dispute among states but also managing sea resources among states. Remarkably, maritime issues have been developing into more complex and complicated regarding the modernization, globalization and transnational problems. This convention alone is not enough to provide complete guidance to manage the confronting interests on the sea.
The Law of the Sea framework satisfactory to address contemporary maritime security issues, especially on security measurements are questionable regarding the legal and consistency framework of security initiatives with LOSC, particularly whilst the agreements deal with political, legal and financial factors.
The 9/11 tragedy becomes a pivotal point to maritime security regulation regarding the fearful theory of next devastating attack from terrorist will occur from the sea . To prevent the threats, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has issued several regulations concerning on maritime safety and security . International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code is one of the most fashionable and revolutionary systems in the evolution of shipping industry security . The U.S established several security preventive policies such as the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), Cont...
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...2008, p. 8.
Department of Homeland Security, “ Implementation of National Maritime Security Initiatives”, Federal Register, Rules and Regulations, Vol. 68, No. 204, October 22, 2003 ,p.,60448 cited in Sean D. Murphy P, United States Practice in International Law, Volume 2; Volumes 2002-2004 Cambridge university press, new York, 2005,p .130
Donna J, Nincic., “The Challenge of Maritime Terrorism: Threat Identification, WMD and Regime Response”, The Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 28 No. 4, 2005, pp. 635-636.
Friedman, Benjamin, “The Proliferation Security Initiative: The Legal Challenge”, Bipartisan Security Group Policy Brief, September 4,2003,pp.2-3.
Grewal, Devinder, “The ISPS Code: The Australian Experience and Perspective” in Rupert Herbert-Burns, Sam Bateman and Peter Lehr,eds., “Lloyd’s MIU Handbook of Maritime Security”, Ch.23, pp. 327-335.
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