Essay about Geology: The Study of the Earth

Essay about Geology: The Study of the Earth

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Erosion occurs when wind or water blow/wash away the topmost fertile layer of soil. As fertile land loses its fertility due to soil erosion, it is difficult to grow crops on eroded lands. Apart from affecting crops, erosion also weakens land, causing buildings to collapse. Soil erosion can be prevented by planting windbreaks. Windbreaks are lines of planted bushes and plants that hold soil firmly with their roots and prevent it from being washed away. Other methods include terracing, in which level plains are cut on hillsides and crops are grown on these plains. (wikipedia.org)

Weathering is the process of decomposition or breakdown of soils and rocks when they come in direct contact with natural forces such as wind, rain and heat. Weathering is of two types, mechanical and chemical. Mechanical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks due to wind, heat, rain and ice. Sand that is carried by wind grinds down the surfaces of rocks, causing wind erosion/weathering. Higher temperatures cause cracks in rocks. This mostly occurs when sun rays heat up the surface of the rocks while the inside of the rock remains cool. When the surface of such rocks cools down at night, it contracts. Repeated contraction and expansion causes cracks in the rock, leading to its breakdown and weathering. Raindrops too cause weathering, either by wearing down the rocks or by causing chemical changes by mixing with minerals in the rocks. Ice glaciers running over rocks also lead to their breakdown. Chemical weathering occurs when environmental agents, such as CO2, react with rock minerals. (wikipedia.org)

Mass wasting is the process by which soil and rocks move down a slope due the action of gravity. This occurs when the gravitational forces acting ...


... middle of paper ...


...inents
Mesozoic: High volcanic activity, tectonic motion, dinosaurs went extinct
Cenozoic: End of glacial period, large mammals appeared, human civilization (wikipedia.org)



Works Cited

Wikipedia.org. “Erosion.” Wikipedia, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. .
Wikipedia.org. “Weathering.” Wikipedia, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weathering
Wikipedia.org. “Mass weathering.” Wikipedia, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_wasting
Wikipedia.org. “Lithosphere.” Wikipedia, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithosphere
Wikipedia.org. “Plate tectonics.” Wikipedia, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics
Wikipedia.org. “Geologic time scale.” Wikipedia, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale




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