Genetics and Epigenetic: Gene Expression and Regulation Essay

Genetics and Epigenetic: Gene Expression and Regulation Essay

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“If Genetics was the recipe then Epigenetics would be the Chef who would create his own idea of how to present the dish”, ~ Eliza Hazlerigg


Introduction;
For 70+ years now we have been working on our Epigenome but not really understood what it is or what it can do for us but, thanks to the works of Dr. Conrad H. Waddington “Epigenetic Landscape” 1939,

Epigenetics ~ Is the term coined to explain a variety of “bizarre” phenotypic phenomena in different organisms that can’t be elucidated by Mendelian Genetics. It is like a bridge between geno and phenotypes ~ giving explanation to how cells carrying identical DNA differentiate into different cell types and how this differentiated state remains stable;

o More recently it has evolved to mean “modifications” to DNA that affect gene expression but do not involve base changes
 These changes are regular and naturally occurring nevertheless can be heavily influenced by several factors such as;
• Age
• Environment & life style
• Or disease state.


“According to Dr. Lipton, the true secret to life does not lie within your DNA, but rather within the mechanisms of your cell membrane.”






There are 4 main mechanisms of modification and regulation of gene expression; DNA methylation, Chromatin Remodeling (architecture), Histone Modification and RNAi (interference/interactions)

1. DNA ~ Methylation
This “DNA methylation” is the most widely studied of the modifications employing many roles,

~ There was a small experiment done on DNA~ Methylation and mottled mice ~
There is a gene which accounts for colouration, the Agouti gene, the most interesting of the Agouti genes is the Agouti viable yellow “Avy “
Avy is a low methylated gene and consequently highly active in all cells o...


... middle of paper ...


...39-0512-6_10.Use of Genome-Wide RNAi Screens to Identify Regulators of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Self-Renewal. Zheng X1, Hu G.
14. The Epigenetics Revolution, Nessa Carey, 2011 eBook
15. Encyclopaedia of Molecular Cell biology and molecular medicine, Robert Meyers, 2004, Wiley (page 221/426/385/416/237/ 2224/5321/5414/8869)
16. Mechanisms and Functions of ATP-Dependent Chromatin-Remodeling Enzymes Geeta J. Narlikar, Tom Owen-Hughes Email DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.07.011
17. Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 119: Chromatin Protocols Edited by: P. B. Becker 1999
18. Zhao X, Su J, Wang F, Liu D, Ding J, et al. (2013) Crosstalk between NSL Histone Acetyltransferase and MLL/SET Complexes: NSL Complex Functions in Promoting Histone H3K4 Di-Methylation Activity by MLL/SET Complexes. PLoS Genet 9(11): e1003940. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003940

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