Firstly, DNA and genes are made of proteins. Proteins are fundamental to cells because cells need proteins in order to function. The human body produces different proteins for different cells. Each organ produces and uses specific cells that they can benefit from. Cells from a different organ cannot affect or benefit another organ. For instance, a cell from the ears cannot affect the eyes or benefit from it and they are programmed to help only a specific organ to function. There are many ways to control genes, which is called transcription factors (TFs) meaning that they manage the amount of proteins that is made for every cell. TF is precise for only a certain set of genes because they can produce adrenaline or even genes that lead to aging (Aging Genes, 2008).
The first aging theory is that our genes because damaged over time, which makes us age. Another theory is that some organisms are programmed in to their genes when to age, in other words, our genes have information on when to make us grow older. Some of the organisms can live in certain average of time, for examples, mice can only live for two years and a human is 75 years or older (Aging Genes, 2008). Researchers had testified worm Caenorhabditis elegans die in only two weeks, but ...
... middle of paper ...
Antebi, A. (2007). Genetics of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. Aging: Bench to Bedside (pp. 1565-1571 vol3. issue9. e129.). Houston, Texas: PLoS Genetics.
Hayflick, L. (2007, December 14). Entropy Explains Aging, Genetic Determinism Explains Longevity, and Undefined Terminology Explains Misunderstanding Both. PLOS Genetics: February 21, 2014.
Institute on Aging, N. N. (2011). Biology of aging: research today for a healthier tomorrow. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Paternostro, G. (2002). Genetic Analysis of Cardiac Aging in Drosophila. The Ellison Medical Foundation. March 1, 2014. http://www.ellisonfoundation.org/content/genetic-analysis-cardiac-aging-drosophila
Larsen, P. L. (2001). Asking the age-old questions. Nature Genetics, 28, 102-104. April 5, 2014. http://kenyonlab.ucsf.edu/ng0601_102.pdf.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Progeria is a fatal, genetic disorder that is characterized by the appearance of accelerated aging in children. It was first described in England in 1886 by Doctor Jonathan Hutchinson and then again in 1897 by Doctor Hastings Gilford. It is extremely rare and only affects one in four to eight million newborns every year. There are estimated to be about only 200-250 children living with this disease. In addition, it affects both males and females, and children of all races (“Progeria 101/FAQ”). Throughout this paper, a brief, yet informative outline will be given about Progeria.... [tags: disorder, causes, symptoms, child]
1866 words (5.3 pages)
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) It is not surprised that one of the common progressive motor neuronal disease, ALS, is also genetically connected to the mutations of degradation machineries with varied etiology. Even the majority of ALS is sporadic, two of familial ALS is mainly associated with simple monogenic factors, the mutation of SOD (D90A) and a large hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72). However, growing evidence of genetic mutations in proteostasis factors discovered in familial ALS such as, UBQLN2, VCP/CDC48 in the UPS and SQSTM1/p62, VAPB and some of the vesicular traffic proteins in autophagy have been suggesting a fragile c... [tags: disease, genetic, aging, factor]
993 words (2.8 pages)
- ... If cells get too large, osmosis and diffusion can't efficiently transport materials in and out. Cell division can also serve as a repairing agent for when part of an organism is damaged. Cell division can then create new cells to replace those located in the damaged area in order to close the wound and heal. If the loss of nucleoplasmic foci contributes to the dysfunction of genome replication in the S phase, then cell division is affected as well, resulting in arrested growth. In response to accumulated DNA damage, ATM and ATR checkpoints are highly activated in progeroid, causing replicative arrest.... [tags: genetic disorders, premature aging]
1784 words (5.1 pages)
- Progeria is a rare disease that affects two hundred to two hundred and fifty children worldwide. Children with progeria have facial features of an aging person and suffer from many bone abnormalities, inability to gain weight, and cardio vascular disease which is responsible for their deaths. Progeria is caused by a mutation in the LMNA gene which is located in the nuclear membrane. The LMNA gene synthesizes lamin A and lamin C proteins. The intermediate filament proteins are responsible for nuclear stability and strength.... [tags: rare child's genetic disease, premature aging]
1459 words (4.2 pages)
- ... Therefore, progerin is a key component to how and why humans age. Although everyone makes a small amount of progerin that accumulates over a lifetime, children with Progeria produce more amounts quicker (“Progeria 101/FAQ"). The disease does not affect the children’s brains because brain cells do not carry out LMNA (“What Causes Progeria?”). Therefore, children’s brains develop as normal, which seems to be the only positive side of the serious illness. From the time when the research was completed in 2003, scientists have been able to study a variety of new treatment options and learn more about the disease.... [tags: biology behind a rare genetic disorder]
2017 words (5.8 pages)
- Abstract This report presents several aspects of aging. The report looks at a number of theories of why we age, the physical and mental changes we undergo as we age, and ways of caring for the elderly. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION......................................................1 THEORIES OF WHY WE AGE............................................2 Genetics.....................................................2 Cellular.....................................................2 Physiological................................................2 PHYSICAL CHANGES..................................................2 MENTAL CHANGES....................................................5 Alzheimer's Disea... [tags: The Aging Body, Physiological Changes]
1792 words (5.1 pages)
- ... Baylis and Robert provide an example with the performance enhancement drugs that are used by professional athletes all over the world. These drugs stimulate bone marrow to produce oxygen-rich blood cells, which, in turn, increases the athlete’s performance (2004). Though not exactly on the genetic level, this example shows how enhancement drugs and techniques have been used in the past. Benefits from genetic enhancements are widespread. These benefits are evident in physical, intellectual, psychological, and even moral enhancements.... [tags: genetic engineering, nonpathological human traits]
1094 words (3.1 pages)
- Human Genetic Engineering: Designing the Future As the rate of advancements in technology and science continue to grow, ideas that were once viewed as science fiction are now becoming reality. As we collectively advance as a society, ethical dilemmas arise pertaining to scientific advancement, specifically concerning the controversial topic of genetic engineering in humans. Human genetic engineering increasingly causes dissonance between various groups of scientific and religious groups of people in regards to if we should or should not ‘play god’ and attempt to modify humans for the better of the race.... [tags: DNA, Genetics, Human, Genetic engineering]
1309 words (3.7 pages)
- Until the recent demise of the Soviet Union, we lived under the daily threat of nuclear holocaust extinguishing human life and the entire biosphere. Now it looks more likely that total destruction will be averted, and that widespread, but not universally fatal, damage will continue to occur from radiation accidents from power plants, aging nuclear submarines, and perhaps the limited use of tactical nuclear weapons by governments or terrorists. What has gone largely unnoticed is the unprecedented lethal threat of genetic engineering to life on the planet.... [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]
1953 words (5.6 pages)
- Infirmed aging is having a condition of weakness or illness that usually lasts for a long time and is caused especially by old age. Progeria is the severe disease of the infirmed aging branch and is defined as a progressive genetic disorder that causes children to age rapidly, beginning in their first two years of life. Progeria only affects one in eight million people in the world. The term Progeria is gathered from the Greek word geras, meaning old age. Children with progeria usually don’t show any signs when they are birthed but in a year or so their growth rate starts to slow down.... [tags: Non-Clinical Applications of Recreational Therapy]
1245 words (3.6 pages)