Genetic Manipulation or Genetic Engineering Essay

Genetic Manipulation or Genetic Engineering Essay

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Genetic manipulation, also referred to as ‘genetic engineering’ or ‘genetic modification’, is the change of an organism’s gene through the use of modern biotechnology techniques. There are various forms of genetic manipulation, including transgenic organisms, cloning, and gene therapy etc. Transgenic organisms, also known as genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are organisms that possess a foreign gene in its genome. This is achieved through recombinant DNA technology, which involves either the combining of DNA from different genomes or the insertion of foreign DNA into a genome. The production of transgenic organisms, particularly animals, is a highly controversial topic and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed thoroughly below.
The process of recombinant DNA technology (recDNA) manipulates DNA by the use of restriction enzymes, ligases and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Sections of DNA are cut using restriction enzymes with the ‘desirable’ genes of species inserted into DNA of another species. Once inserted, the gene becomes part of the genetic material of that organism, but foreign gene will behave in the same way as it would in its own species. Some examples of transgenic animals include: genetically engineered salmon that possess gene coding for GH (growth hormone) and sheep with cysteine to enhance premium wool production or injected with gene responsible for producing a clotting factor (which administers to humans that suffer from haemophilia) in their milk etc.
Numerous advantages regarding transgenic organisms are in place to support the continuous development of the technology. It boosts certain characteristics beneficial to the human population as well as increase genetic variation in the short term....


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...uences could this result in? Who is the person that makes the decision to select ‘desired characteristics’, decide what is appropriate to introduce into another organism? became a concern to many. In addition, social inequity could be a possible result from GMOs usage where certain large corporations may own the rights to the most productive organisms, thus restricting access to those who are most in need. Therefore, there are diverse limitations and arguments that poses against transgenic organisms.
In conclusion, the technology of transgenic organisms, animals in particular, has both advantages and disadvantages. When used appropriately, it has great potential to benefit the society and environment. And despite the concerns, it is undeniable that they had revolutionised our lives in countless ways through agriculture, medicine and the pharmaceutical industry.  



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