Genetic Disorders And Genetic Diseases Essay

Genetic Disorders And Genetic Diseases Essay

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Humans are made up of millions of cells that differ from brain cells to liver cells. Each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, holding the genetic material which can determine our hair colour to whether we have dimples or not. The 46 chromosomes help with a cell are paired up creating 23 different pairs, with one chromosome in the pair coming from your mother and the other coming from your father. Chromosomes are within the nucleus of a cell where the long strand of DNA is held, within the DNA are genes. Genes determine our physical make up as well as genetic diseases passed down either from a parent who is a carrier (without actually having the disease) or a parent who has the disease passing it down. This can be shown in the diagram to the below, which displays how two parents one without the disease and one with can pass down an altered gene affecting the child. Mutation is a term used to a change in the nucleotide base coding, meaning there is a fault within the gene behaviour. Therefore, if there is a mutation in the sperm and egg cell from the parents, the child can inherit this mutation known as a defective gene. Due to these mutations and faults people turn to medical screening for genetic diseases to combat any errors.











Testing for genetic diseases examines a person’s DNA in multiple different ways for the many diseases and tests to conduct. Genetic tests are conducted by taking a sample of blood, hair or skin, however, this is harder when testing a fetus therefore the sample of DNA that will be used is the amniotic fluids (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during a pregnancy. Molecular Genetic Testing examines a person’s DNA sampled from either their blood or fluid, such as amniotic fluid (if they are unborn) or ...


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...l tax payers finically. So if genetic screening can minimalize the population that requires lifelong healthcare and support e.g. disability pensions etc. then the principle of Utilitarianism is upheld, i.e. being the greater good for the most amount of people.
In conclusion, there are many socio-economic and ethical concepts relating to genetic testing. Ultimately it is the choice of the individual or the couple who will raise the child as to whether they ethically or can economically embrace genetic testing, and from there it just their choice as to whether they choose to continue the pregnancy. Moreover, the concept of screening for genetic diseases is one that is bigger than just ethical and economic ramifications. We must bring about the correct legal frame work to ensure the success for the clinical integration of the upcoming genetic technologies of the future.

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