As of yet, the etiology of Down syndrome is idiopathic although there is a definite connection with maternal age. According to Allan M. Glanzman in Chapter 23, Genetic and Developmental Disorders, of Pathology Implications for the Physical Therapist, the overall incidence among live births is about one in 700; with the maternal age less than thirty, the risk of chromosomal abnormality is about one in 2000 births; at thirty-five to thirty-nine years of maternal age the incidence is about one in fifty; and for mothers forty and older the risk has increased to be about one ou...
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...the observation, practice, and the specificity of the on screen tasks are able to enable the children to engage the mirror neuron system to be able to mimic or apply the tasks outside the virtual reality (Wuang et al., 2010).
Even though chromosome 21 is the second most mapped chromosome, the cause of Down syndrome is still unknown. There is a connection between the maternal age and the increased incidence of the genetic disorder. At the moment there is not a cure for Down syndrome and only the associated diseases are able to be treated to make the life of the individual easier. The primary goal for both physical therapy and medical treatment intervention was to help the affected children develop to their full potential and with the aid of both, many children with Down syndrome are able to improve their lifestyles and do what children enjoy doing the most, have fun.
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- History: Down Syndrome was discovered in 1866 by a British physician named John Langdon Down, which is where the name Down Syndrome came from. This genetic disorder was first referred to as Mongolism. The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early 1970s. In 1959, a French Pediatrician/Geneticist Professor Jerome Lejeune had discovered that people with this disorder have one extra chromosome. In the 1960s when children with Down Syndrome were born, they were put into institutions right after birth.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation]
709 words (2 pages)
- Down syndrome is a variance in chromosome 21 that manifests with cognitive delay, muscle hypotonia, characteristic facies, and short stature. (Glanzman, 2015 & Powell-Hamilton, 2012) The genetic disorder was named after the Physician John Langdon Down, who had originally in 1866 labeled those with the genetic abnormality as “Mongoloids”; Down indicated his choice of term for the children because of their appearance was allegedly similar to those from Mongolia and at the time it was believed that those who were of Mongolian decent were to have halted development.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]
1901 words (5.4 pages)
- Down syndrome: A Genetic disorder Each year in the United States, about 13 out of every 10,000 babies are born with Down syndrome, also called trisomy 21 (Johnson). Being the “most common chromosome disorder and genetic cause of intellectual disability”, Down syndrome equally affects males and females as well as all different races (Johnson). In other words, Down syndrome does not show any preference for a specific gender or race. Unfortunately, those who are affected by Down syndrome experience a number of problems throughout their lives which limit their quality of life and health.... [tags: trisomy 21, chromosome disorder]
972 words (2.8 pages)
- “About 13 of every 10,000 babies born in the United States each year is born with Down syndrome. It affects an equal number of male and female babies” (Johnson P. A. 2014). Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that found across the world, however it is more prevalent in the United States. The cause of the disorder roots to the paring of the human chromosomes. A normal human receives 23 pairs of chromosomes, each pair coming from mother and father. In Down syndrome most people affected have an abnormal cell division of the chromosome.... [tags: genetic disorder, trisomy 21, mutation]
955 words (2.7 pages)
- Many times two diseases show links between themselves. One example of a link is Down’s syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Down’s syndrome is a chromosomal disorder, and acute myeloid leukemia is the most common form of acute leukemia. Patients who have both of these diseases have to be treated separately and differently than those who suffer from just one disease. The survival rates of DS-AML patients are exceptionally high, especially in young patients. As a patient’s age increases, their survival rating decreases, however, comparatively to survival rates of other cancer, their rates remain optimistically high even at an older age.... [tags: chromosomal disorder, genetic information]
956 words (2.7 pages)
- Anissa Ayala at age 16 developed lumps on her ankles, followed soon by severe stomach pains. Later she finds that she needs a bone transplant that matches perfectly with her genetically. After looking for many years, the parents decide to have another child that matches with her sister through genetically modifying the baby. Marissa soon made headlines in becoming a successful child to be a perfect match to help her sister and later Anissa is cancer-free. Scientists are increasing their research on new discoveries in picking an embryo that best fits the parent’s needs.... [tags: Genetics, Gene, Pregnancy, Genetic disorder]
2623 words (7.5 pages)
- Down syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. There are three genetic variations that cause Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, Mosaic Trisomy 21 or Translocation Trisomy 21. There are many ways in which theses disorders affect the body. Trisomy 21 occurs when an egg or sperm comes in with an extra copy of chromosome 21, then, once an embryo is formed and starts to develop, the chromosome is replicated in every single cell of the embryo. Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down syndrome.... [tags: genetic disorder]
691 words (2 pages)
- Down syndrome; what is it and how does it affect the people who have it. Roughly 1 in 800 infants born in Canada are affected by Down syndrome. Down syndrome, also called Trisomy 21, is a chromosomal disorder that is caused by an extra genetic material in the individual. It delays the way an individual develops both mentally and physically. Down syndrome cannot be prevented but it can be detected before birth. At the time of conception an infant inherits genes from its parents in the form of 46 chromosomes.... [tags: Trisomy 21, Chromosomal Disorder, Genetic Material]
1126 words (3.2 pages)
- Down syndrome is congenital condition in which there is presence of an extra 21st chromosome. In every human being there is an small yet intricate hub that holds genetic material called the nucleus. This genetic material is carried by genes and each and every one of our main characteristics or traits is grouped together next to an imperative structure called a chromosome. When an individual has an extra 21st chromosome, they experience a disorder in which the person experiences “intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, and weak muscle tone (or hypotonia) in infancy.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation, Gene]
1250 words (3.6 pages)
- "Having Down syndrome is like being born normal. I am just like you and you are just like me. We are all born in different ways, that is the way I can describe it. I have a normal life"(Burke, C., n.d.). Where special education is concerned, one must always remember that exceptional learners are different, not less. In the following studies, the various strengths and weaknesses of the language and communication of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is reviewed and discussed. Language is defined as the method of human communication either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words, in a structured or conventional way.... [tags: Down Syndrome Essays]
2336 words (6.7 pages)