PGD distinguishes itself from other assisted reproductive technology in that it involves testing prior to implantation, as its name implies. Implantation refers to the event in which an embryo comes into contact with the uterus; this occurs approximately one week after fertilization a zygote is formed with half of both parents’ DNA (Niakan, Han, Pedersen, Simon, & Pera, 2012). The formation of the zygote is considered the beginning point of the embryo (Niakan, Han, Pedersen, Simon, & Pera, 2012). In the time taken to migrate down the fallopian tubes to the uterus, the zygote develops into a blastocyst. It is at this developmental stage when embryos are typically tested for single gene and chromosomal...
... middle of paper ...
...s typically offered to parents at risk of transmitting DMD in the context of either preventing an affected boy who will suffer early onset of the disorder and most likely an early death (Altarescu, et al., 2014), whereas the prevention of a a girl who is a carrier may or may not be considered acceptable (REF?). This use of PGD in this case is more open to debate than HD because an embryo identified as a carrier will most likely be healthy, and its destruction can be considered unethical. On the other hand, the prevention of the future burden of transmission for one’s children can be considered ethical by others. Another factor worth considering is that distinguishing between a female carrier and non-carrier is not as accurate as distinguishing between a male with and without the affected gene (REF?). For the above reasons, the decision to undergo PGD is complicated.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Where does DNA come from. What is DNA. What is a Trisomy. DNA comes from our parents, we get half from mom and the other half from dad. DNA is two strands of nucleotide bases coiled into a double helix. The four nucleotide bases are Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine. Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with Cytosine. Each set has 23 single chromosomes- 22 Autosomes and one X or Y sex chromosome. (Massimini, 2000). “Your mother can give you only an X chromosome, but your father can pass on an X or a Y chromosome.... [tags: Genetic Disorders]
1495 words (4.3 pages)
- Genetic testing is a voluntary type of medical test used to identify changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. This type of medical test checks for alterations in an individual's genes or changes in levels of gene products, proteins. Genetic testing could also be used to look for structure of certain proteins, and for levels of RNA that play a role in certain conditions. The purpose of the test is to indentify genetic problems or possible risk for developing genetic disease. What could genetic testing be used to identify.... [tags: genes, chromosomal condition]
1274 words (3.6 pages)
- Introduction An abnormality in a person’s genetic material (the genome or the DNA) is what causes a genetic disorder. In general, there are four differentiated kinds of genetic disorders. These are caused when 1) when a single-gene gets mutated, 2) multiple genes get mutated 3) mitochondrial, and 4) chromosomal. Genetic diseases are terrible. They are diseases that are attained genetically (written in a person 's biological code). They are the kind of illness that are hard to avoid and impossible sometimes (In Kulkarni, 2015).... [tags: Cystic fibrosis, Genetics, Genetic disorder]
911 words (2.6 pages)
- Genetic disorders are a topic in biology that can not be avoided. The fact is that genetic disorders can happen in humans, plants or animal. No one and nothing is safe from a genetic disorder. A genetic disorder can appear in the first years off life, or can appear much later in life when least expected. A basic principal of biology states that the behavior of chromosomes during the meiosis process can account for genetic inheritance patterns. There are many reasons for genetic disorders.... [tags: essays research papers]
1352 words (3.9 pages)
- The topic I have chosen to research for my final project is Huntington’s disease. I have chosen this topic because one of my great grandfathers on my father’s side has Huntington’s disease. My father has become his primary care taker, as he is unable to function on his own. He is currently 72 years old and was diagnosed with this disease at 39. After witnessing his struggles I learned more about this disease and after researching how it is caused by an unequal crossing-over, I became that much more interested in it.... [tags: Genetics, DNA, Genetic disorder, Mutation]
1696 words (4.8 pages)
- Prenatal genetic testing has only been around for about 85 years; it was first used in the 1930s in the form of amniocentesis. Amniocentesis is a test that entails a large needle being inserted into the abdomen of a pregnant woman and withdrawing a small amount of amniotic fluid. This sample is examined for genetic markers that would point towards a certain genetic disorder or disease. In the 1930s, genetic testing would have been able to detect erythroblastosis fetalis, which is a blood disorder, or Down’s syndrome (which is what prenatal genetic testing was originally for).... [tags: Pregnancy, Abortion, Genetic disorder, Obstetrics]
1135 words (3.2 pages)
- A genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's DNA. Abnormalities can range from a small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes” (Letsou). Most individuals are either related to or know someone who is effected by some type of disability. Many of these disabilities are caused by genetic disorders. Genetic disorders may alter physical appearance and cause mild to severe mental retardation. Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Turners syndrome and many other syndromes result from a mutation of a chromosome, an extra chromosome, or too few chromosomes.... [tags: Disease, Abnormalities, DNA, Mutation]
960 words (2.7 pages)
- Down syndrome is a variance in chromosome 21 that manifests with cognitive delay, muscle hypotonia, characteristic facies, and short stature. (Glanzman, 2015 & Powell-Hamilton, 2012) The genetic disorder was named after the Physician John Langdon Down, who had originally in 1866 labeled those with the genetic abnormality as “Mongoloids”; Down indicated his choice of term for the children because of their appearance was allegedly similar to those from Mongolia and at the time it was believed that those who were of Mongolian decent were to have halted development.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]
1901 words (5.4 pages)
- Have you ever heard someone talking about his or her birthmark, and were curious to know if you had one. Maybe you did have one or knew someone with one also, but was wondering to how they even got one. The proper way to refer to one of those marks on the human body is not a birthmark, it is actually a defect that someone was born with and is considered a birth defect. “Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability. They are the leading cause of death for infants during the first year of life.... [tags: Chromosomal Abnormalities, Birth Marks]
1022 words (2.9 pages)
- Genetic Screening What is genetic screening. Health care is becoming more and more of a concern today as the profession is constantly creating new procedures and what we hope are better ways to administer care. How would things be, though, if patients could be told beforehand what diseases they are likely to contract in the future. This is where genetic screening comes into play. Genetic screening is the ability to examine the genetic code for possible defects and the consequences thereof. What is a genetic disease.... [tags: Science Genes Biology Papers]
2323 words (6.6 pages)