Genetic and Environmental Influences on Victims, Bullies and Bully-Victims in Childhood

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Victims, Bullies and Bully-Victims in Childhood

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Conceptual Framework
Many people have different views on what they think bullying might be. It is often interpreted in different ways by different people. Rigby et al (2002) cited a definition of bullying as ‘an intentional harm where the power is differential between the bully and the victim’ (p.1). This meant that the bullies are likely to suffer from a range of problems than the children who are uninvolved. The researcher’s main assumption is to consider victimisation and bullying separately and secondly to consider victimisation and bullying simultaneously to examine the genetics and environmental influences on the covariation between the two.
The paper focuses on three groups of children that are involved in bullying. The three groups are as follows: one being the victim, two being the bullies and third one being the bully victims who are both the bullies and the victims of bullying. According to Egan and Perry, (1998) they believe that the bullies and victims have an increase in emotional and behavioural problems than the children who are not involved in bullying. One of this problem being is low self regard where as Hawker et al (2006) stated the problems are anxiety and depression where as Schwartz (2000) stated that the bullying victims are more depressed and anxious and have higher rates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and are more likely to be referred for psychiatric care and also are more likely to be rejected by a school (Kempulainen et al 1998) compared to the children who are uninvolved in bullying, the victims or bullies. Hawker and Egan et al both have similar views as they both stated that the bullying victims are depressed and anxious.
Various studies have been car...


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...ousehold income.
Overall it has been proved that bullying was influenced by genetic factors and to a small extent by non shared environmental factors. Patterson et al (1992) suggested that socialisation via parenting and peers (Harris, 1998) contribute to share and non-shared environmental influences on aggressive behaviour.
The correlation between victimisation and bullying indicated that fewer children are the bully-victims while more are ‘pure’ victims or ‘pure’ bullies. This confirms earlier research that has been carried out has found a similar correlation between victimisation and aggression (Hodges and Perry, (1999); Crick and Bigbee, (1998). The correlation was seen as high in girls as in boys between the victimisation and bullying. This concludes that the chances of being a bully given to that one victim are just as high for girls as for boys.

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