In 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declared all acts of discrimination on the basis of sex unlawful. 31 years later, the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) was adopted by the General Assembly. The CEDAW prompted an international document of the same name that advocates for the full incorporation of women in decision making capacities. It also “emphasis the civil rights, legal rights of women, reproductive roles and rights, impact of cultural factors on gender relations and barriers on advancement of women (World Bank, 2012). Moreover, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) outlined the most pervasive threats to global peace and security and set eight goals on how to eradicate them. These goals are referred to as Millennium Development Goals (MDG). 189 member states in 2000 vowed to “Promote gender equality and empower women” when they endorsed the UNDP’S MDG.
In 1963, thousands of women find voice and courage after reading Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique and the second wave hit. The description of educated housewives imprisoned by the monotony of domestic servitude hit home for many. A woman was quoted as saying “"The female doesn't really expect a lot from life. She's here as someone's keeper — her husband's or her children's"(Coontz, Stephanie). Friedan’s work was founded on liberal feminism, the theory that attributes gender differences and inequality to the practice of socialization. During the same year, the Equal Pay Act was passed and mandated that men and women should receive the same wages for the same job.
Before the Equal Pay Act, men and women were confined to vocational roles based on gendered norms. Women often stayed at home with the c...
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...me a Long Way, Baby? Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Sexism in 2008 Campaign Coverage.” Communication Studies. 2009. 60(4): 326-343.
Carroll, Susan J. “Reflections on Gender and Hillary Clinton’s Presidential Campaign: The Good, the Bad, and the Misogynic.” Politics & Gender. 2009. 5(1): 1-20.
Lawless, Jennifer L. and Fox, Richard L. ”Men Rule: The Continued Under-Representation of Women in U.S. Politics. Women and Politics Institute. 2012 Washington, D.C.
Okimoto, Tyler G. and Brescoll, Victoria L. “The Price of Power: Power Seeking and Backlash Against Female Politicians.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2010. 36(7): 923-936.
Heflick, N. A., & Goldenberg, J. L. (2009). Objectifying Sarah Palin: Evidence that objectification causes women to be perceived as less competent and less fully human. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 598-601.
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- In 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declared all acts of discrimination on the basis of sex unlawful. 31 years later, the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) was adopted by the General Assembly. The CEDAW prompted an international document of the same name that advocates for the full incorporation of women in decision making capacities. It also “emphasis the civil rights, legal rights of women, reproductive roles and rights, impact of cultural factors on gender relations and barriers on advancement of women (World Bank, 2012).... [tags: equal pay act, discrimination]
1881 words (5.4 pages)
- Miss Representation proves the way that gendered socialization is heavily affected by the media in destructive ways especially for women. The title, itself, is a clever play on words and reflects the media’s portrayal of women. First, the “Miss” part of the title has significance. “Miss” is not only a title that is used for females, but it is a title that when used alone to address women, especially younger women, is slightly condescending and patronizing. Therefore, by using “Miss Representation” instead of “Misrepresentation,” it hints that women are misrepresented in the media in a negatively disparaging and inaccurate manner.... [tags: Mass media, Woman, News media, Gender role]
1198 words (3.4 pages)
- Society constructs images that define males and females to boundaries called gender norms. When a person steps out of the gender boundaries, it is often looked down upon by society. I chose to violate the gender norm by opening doors for people. This past weekend, my friend and I went out to a store near my house. As I was entering the store, I decided to hold the door open for two men who were walking out. One of the men paused and told me, “shouldn’t I be holding the door for you?” and I reacted to tell him, “No I’m fine” and the two men paused and left.... [tags: Gender, Sociology, Gender role, Woman]
933 words (2.7 pages)
- Despite the great lengths society has overcome in regards to gender inequality, social issues regarding the difference between men and women still exist. Women in today’s society still continually earn less than men in almost every single occupation. Women were given the right to vote in 1919, yet in 2016 they still have not achieved full equality in comparison to their male counterparts. Gender equality related to equal pay is concerning not only in my own community, but the entire nation. Analyzing the earning of men vs.... [tags: Sociology, Gender, Structural functionalism]
1156 words (3.3 pages)
- No country in the world can yet say they have achieved gender equality (Eitzen, Zinn, and Smith 2012). Every society treats women and men differently. Research shows that sex and gender are entirely separate concepts, yet, society lumps them together and the terms oftentimes are used interchangeably. We can distinguish that sex indicates biological differences between males and females, and gender assigns cultural and social behavior based on sex. However, everything in society is needlessly gendered; advertising, occupations, institutions.... [tags: Gender, Gender role, Gender studies, Female]
1213 words (3.5 pages)
- Taking a Gender Studies course opened my eyes to the ways that gender impacts my everyday life, especially where gender rules are being broken. Instances of gender can be found in unexpected places, whether it be a gender-neutral New Baby card, mention of homosexual behavior in a country song, a book dedication from a father to a son, or a college offering of a course in Men’s Studies. Other gender stereotypes hold fast, like using attractive women as eye candy at car shows, but never attractive men.... [tags: Gender, Gender role, Masculinity, Man]
1090 words (3.1 pages)
- In “Gender as a Social Structure: Theory Wrestling with Activism”, the author Barbara Risman explains her theory to readers about how gender should be thought of as a social structure. Thinking of it as such would allow people to examine how gender is ingrained in almost every part of society, thus putting gender on an equal level of importance with economics and politics. In society, gender dictates many of the opportunities and limitations that an individual may face in his or her lifetime. Barbara Risman points out the three aspects of the gender structure that happen at an individual, interactional, and institutional level (Risman, pg.... [tags: Gender, Gender role, Woman, Male]
1412 words (4 pages)
- When a baby is born and wrapped in a pink or blue blanket, they are continuously bombarded with socialization into their gender. Gender is not biological, but is socially constructed by a set of behavior patterns. Femininity and masculinity are culturally determined and are a matter of choice. As we grow up we learn what is expected our gender identity from parents, schools, media, peer pressure. These representations are so strong that we as a society tend to copy the models that we see in our everyday lives.... [tags: Gender, Gender role, Man, Patriarchy]
1663 words (4.8 pages)
- In this paper I will examine different psychological theories on binary gender identity and diverse gender identity. My intention is not to argue which set of theories is more accurate but more to provide information and let the reader decide for themselves in the light of their own experiences what theory makes the most sense to them. The psychologically charged debate over gender identity and its presence in society has taken the form of intuitions because of social necessity. On one side, diverse gender identity argues that traditional binary gender norms are no longer relevant nor an accurate reflection of the society that we live in today.... [tags: Gender, Gender identity, Third gender, Transgender]
1387 words (4 pages)
- Most of the women experience unequal treatment in different paths of the life. Few women acquire positions in public sphere particularly in politics. The development of women and men in the United States has been greatly impacted by the socialization (Schafer, 2010). According to Lee (1976), we have seen a dramatic increase in the number of women running for and elected in the politics since the general elections of 1974. But, American women don’t have equal opportunity to compete against men for elected public offices and positions of power in the governmental system.... [tags: Gender role, Gender, Female, Woman]
1139 words (3.3 pages)