Gender Pay Gap also referred to as Gender wage gap, gender income difference or male-female income difference refers to the difference between the earning of men and women (Victoria, 2006). The European Union defines the Gender Pay gap as the difference between men and women’s hourly earnings (OECD, 2012). The difference may be measured on hourly, weekly, monthly, or yearly earning. The difference is expressed as a percentage of the men’s earning. However, the difference varies from one industry to another, from one country to another and from one age group to another. On average, men earn higher than women do across different sectors and nations.
Gender Gap Pay per country
i. United States of America
The United States has one of the highest gender pay gaps among the developed countries. In the country, the gender pay gap is measured as the ratio of female to males yearly earning among workers in full-time, year round (FTYR) earnings. In 2009, female FTYR earned 77% (0.77) as much as the FTYR male workers (US Census Bureau, 2013). The history of Gender Gap earning reveals USA has made big strides towards reducing the gender pay gap from 1980. For instance, in 1980 the gender pay gap ratio was 0.62 while in 1990, the gap stood at 0.72. Further from 1990 to 2000, the gap reduced to 0.73 and then to 0.77 in 2009. Currently, the gender pay gap stands at 0.76 and continues to persist (US Census Bureau, 2013).
Further data shows that in Woman’s lifetime, she will earn 77% of what a man will earn. However, there are controllable factors, such as job position, race, job industry and other factors, which affect the Gender Pay Gap. For instance, the US Department of Labor found that when such factors were considered, the gap ...
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Blau, F., & Kahn, L. (2007). The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as far as they can. Academy of Management Perspectives , 21 (1), 7-23.
National Centre for Social and economic Modelling. (2009). The Impact of a sustained gender wage gap on the economy:Report to the Office for Women. New York: Department of Families, Community Services, Housing and Indigenous Affairs.
OECD. (2012). OECD Employment Outlook Chapter 3: The Price of Prejudice: Labout Market Discrimination on the Grounds of Gender and Ethnicity. Paris: OECD.
US Census Bureau. (2013). Income, Poverty anbd Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office.
Victoria. (2006). How Much of Remaining Gender Pay Gap is Result of Discrimination and How Much is Due to Individual Choices? International Journal of Urban Labour and Leaisure , 7 (2).
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