Colonial ideas continue to shape perceptions regarding gender in modern day Chile and persist in influencing Chilean attitudes toward the machi. Because of the co-gendered identities associated with Mapuche shamanism, the machi are considered effeminate and deviant in a country where concepts of power and prestige are closely linked to ideas of masculinity. Therefore, machi are further marginalized and ostracized. These views are not solely applied to the male machi, but are extended to the female practitioners who are labeled witches. However, male machi are forced to struggle to legitimate themselves and validate their religious pra...
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