Gel Electrophoresis Essay example

Gel Electrophoresis Essay example

Length: 1456 words (4.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

As seen on many crime shows and at real-life crime scenes, it is necessary to be able to identify DNA. Most of the time, this is done using a technique known as gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is a method used to separate the macromolecules that make up nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, along with proteins. Gel electrophoresis is significant because it has given scientists insight on what cells cause certain diseases and has led to advancements in DNA and fingerprint identification. My experiment will use gel electrophoresis to compare samples of natural and synthetic food dyes. The background for this experiment broaches the following subjects: inventors, real-world uses, necessary components, separation, and information on food dyes.
Electrophoresis was first developed in the 1930s by Tiselius. It has since expanded, and new techniques have been developed. The system of gel electrophoresis was developed in the 1950s by Oliver Smithies (Oliver Smithies: Born Inventor). Smithies created a new technique using starch and staining within gel to allow for better protein resolution. This technique was revolutionary because it was relatively inexpensive and easy to use. It provided great clarity of samples. Smithies has won many awards for his work, including the Nobel prize, and his technique is used daily by modern molecular scientists (Oliver Smithies- Biographical).
Gel electrophoresis is used in a variety of settings, particularly in molecular biology. Besides being used to separate nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, gel electrophoresis is also employed to divide proteins (Gel Electrophoresis). According to research, electrophoresis is applied for the following reasons, "To get a DNA fingerprint for forensic pur...

... middle of paper ...

...hat are macromolecules?" November 14, 2013. December 12, 2013.,_Biological_%26_Inorganic_Chemistry/MM.__Macromolecules_and_Supramolecular_Assemblies/MM1._What_are_macromolecules%3F
Slutz, Ph. D.,Sandra. "Forensic Science: Building Your Own Tool for Identifying DNA." September 5, 2013. December 2, 2013.
Smithies, Oliver. " Oliver Smithies- Biographical." 2007. December 16, 2013.
Unknown Author. "Monosaccharides." December 14, 2013.
Williams, Ruth. "Oliver Smithies: Born Inventor." Circulation Research.108.6 (2011).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about Gel Electrophoresis: Separating DNA and RNA

- Gel electrophoresis is a procedure used in laboratories to separate DNA, as well as RNA and proteins. A gel slab is placed in a buffer-filled box and an electrical field is applied. The negatively charged DNA will migrate towards the positively charged side, where it can then be recorded and further analyzed. An example for the use of gel electrophoresis would be in identifying people. DNA is present in almost every cell of our body. Each person has a unique sequence of DNA base pairs that makes up our DNA fingerprint....   [tags: laboratory procedures]

Powerful Essays
856 words (2.4 pages)

Crime Scenes: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Essay

- ... The higher the agarose concentration the "stiffer" the gel. Agarose gels are extremely easy to prepare: you simply mix agarose powder with buffer solution, melt it by heating, and pour the gel. It is also non-toxic" (Principles of Gel Electrophoresis). Of the mediums used in gel electrophoresis, agarose is the most common. The concentration of agarose used to form the gel can have an impact on the resolution or rate of migration in the experiment. The lower the concentration of the agarose solution, the faster the sample fragments are able to travel through the gel....   [tags: dna, scientists, fingerprint]

Powerful Essays
1479 words (4.2 pages)

Using Multiple Tests : An Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Essay examples

- Results: This experiment consisted of multiple tests: an agarose gel electrophoresis, which was run with a ladder and a purified fragment of the isolate’s DNA and sequencing of the purified fragment, which was later put into a genetic sequence database. In order to get significant results in these two tests the gene that must be present is the 16S rRNA gene. Because this gene sequence contains highly conserved regions the differences in it identify organisms. Furthermore, in order for the 16S rRNA gene to produce significant results a polymerase chain reaction or PCR must be used to amplify the gene by attaching primers to the highly conserved regions....   [tags: Molecular biology, DNA, Bacteria]

Powerful Essays
1128 words (3.2 pages)

Analysis : Suspect Dna Using Gel Electrophoresis Essay

- Analysis of Suspect DNA using Gel Electrophoresis in order to determine the Culprit of the Murder Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule inside human cells that acts as a blueprint for all the complex functioning that occurs in order to allow living things to grow and survive. More specifically, DNA contain genes that code for certain proteins in order to help maintain proper body function. In order to produce these certain proteins DNA must be transcribed into mRNA, and during this process all the non-coding DNA known as the introns are spliced or removed and left with only the exons to form mRNA, which is then translated into proteins that can be used to get a variety of work d...   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Base pair]

Powerful Essays
1610 words (4.6 pages)

Detection Of Specific Sequences Among Dna Fragments Separated By Gel Electrophoresis

- Article One The article “Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis” (1975) by E.M. Southern focuses on the way that the fragments of DNA can be transferred from agarose based gels to cellulose nitrate filters. Then fragments themselves are hybridized to active RNA. E.M. Southern’s main influences for the investigation were the studies of Smith and Wilcox (1970), and Kelly and Smith (1970), which showed that the restrictive enzyme Haemophilus influenza was able to make breaks in DNA sequences that were double stranded....   [tags: Molecular biology, DNA]

Powerful Essays
826 words (2.4 pages)

Chloroplast Fractionation : Nucleic Acid And Protein Analysis Via Gel Electrophoresis

- Chloroplast fractionation: Nucleic acid and protein analysis via gel electrophoresis ABSTRACT: Chloroplasts carry out photosynthetic processes to meet the metabolic demands of plant cells (Alberts, 2008). They consist of an inner thylakoid membrane and a stroma. (Parent et. al, 2008).In this experiment we demonstrate the unique protein compositions of isolated thylakoid and stromal fractions from broken and whole spinach chloroplasts. Because these compartments carry out different metabolic processes, we confirm our hypothesis that performing SDS-PAGE on these fractions will result in distinct patterns on the gels....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Polymerase chain reaction]

Powerful Essays
1837 words (5.2 pages)

Using PCR and Gel Electrophoresis to Determine Genotype Essay

- Using PCR and Gel Electrophoresis to Determine Genotype In certain situations, it is necessary to identify DNA retreived from a sample. When there is a small sample in need of identification, Polymerase Chain Reactions are used to multiply the DNA in the sample in to many identical samples. The DNA retrieved from the reaction can then be imported into an aparatus using gel electrophoresis to compare the sample of DNA to other samples. In our experiment we learned the how to replicate tiny samples of DNA into usable amounts and how to analyze the specimine using gel electrophoresis....   [tags: Papers]

Powerful Essays
582 words (1.7 pages)

Essay about A Experiment On The Protein Catalase

- This experiment attempted to extract and purify the protein catalase from a bovine liver by following a procedure involving homogenization, ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis, a UNO Q-12 FPLC anion exchange column, and a Superdex G75 2.6 X 60 gel filtration column. In total, 45 mL or 895 mg of catalase was obtained over the course of the experiment. The specific activity of the purified catalase was 0.260 units/mg (Table 1). The final pooled fraction of catalase obtained was 45 mL, a highly significant yield from the original 100.08 g of bovine liver....   [tags: Catalase, Enzyme, PH, Gel electrophoresis]

Powerful Essays
1544 words (4.4 pages)

Electrophoresis Essays

- Electrophoresis I. Purpose · perform electrophoresis using restriction enzymes and lambda DNA · understand how a restriction enzyme works · analyze a photograph of electrophoresis · understand how gel electrophoresis separates DNA molecules in a mixture · how to use electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments · determine unknown DNA fragment sizes when given DNA fragments of known size II. Materials agarose powder casting tray and comb camera crushed ice container distilled water DNA samples electronic scale with tare electrophoresis box 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks film graduated cylinder hood ice loading dye microcentrifuge micropipet and tips 1.5 ml reaction tubes and racks rest...   [tags: Papers]

Powerful Essays
1024 words (2.9 pages)

How Agarose Gel Is Used For The Size And Shape Based Separation Of Dna Essay

- When mixing our components, we briefly vortex the mixture, then a quick, “touch”, spin-down in a microcentrifuge. For one hour, we placed the tube in an incubator. The next week we analyzed the plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. For time management, the actual sample was already made, therefore we did a replica using dye instead. Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method that is used commonly for the size and shape-based separation of DNA molecules. Agarose is a linear polysaccharide that is composed of galactose and anhydo-galactose units....   [tags: Molecular biology, DNA, Plasmid]

Powerful Essays
759 words (2.2 pages)