Bridging the gap between past and present and bestowing archaeological record in more coherent, and systematically was provided by Binford in the 1970. He is regarded as the prominent processual archaeologist and envisioned ethnoarchaeology as the rightful methodological heir for elucidating archaeological problems scientifically.
According to Binford cultures are not internally homogenous they differ by age and sex roles and therefore culture change is better understood through ecological factors. Thus, changes are result of both external and internal factors which are complex in nature. And accordingly, advocated comparative ethnography i.e. correlated human behavior and material culture studies with living communities. He strongly denied psychological factors to examine past. His methods emphasized on sampling strategies such as survey, excavation, economizing time and labor for reason (Trigger 2006).
As per Binford all archaeologist tend to link the static to dynamic relationship to attain an interpretation of an archaeological record. In other words he mentions it as assumptions. He calls this means of achieving results from assumption as middle range theory. In other words middle range theory of Binford was basically, linking human behavior with natural process to physical remains along with archaeological record (Trigger 2006).
Binford middle range theory can be explained from two examples such as a cemetery which consist of different types of burials and the variation of grave goods. The assumed result would be an existence of social inequality within the society. Similarly he further explains how the middle range theory can provide essential help in providing an estimation in ide...
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...odder emphasized on the analysis of symbols and symbolic meaning towards comprehending culture change. Henceforth, the post processualist argued that archaeology is more subjective than objective.
Trigger (2006) mentions, the post processualist adhered the theory of structuralism in understanding historical societies. Thus, in post processual archaeology the significance of structuralism and agency is quite clearly evident. As post processualist believe that individuals are free agents and has the ability to act and not necessarily follow societal rules. Hence, they observed society as a conflict driven which is one of the results of culture change. Following these developments in archaeological theory and method which also has its impact in other research areas in archaeology as evident in ethnoarchaeology, bio-archaeology and environmental archaeological analysis.
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