According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM] (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), gambling is an addictive behaviour, and can become an addictive disorder if four of nine symptoms listed in the DSM-5 are exhibited by an individual. Examples of symptoms include when gambling affects personal relationships -“Jeopardises or loses important relationship or job due to gambling”; and when gambling affects an individual’s personality or mood - “Restless or irritable when trying to cut down on [on gambling]” (APA, 2013). The BGPS (2011) found that 0.9% of UK adults over 16 years of age could be classified as a problem gambler according to the DSM-IV, which classifies gambling disorder as an impulse disorder rather than an addictive disorder; uses the same symptoms as criteria for pathological gambling; but requires only three present symptoms for a person to be classed as having gambling disorder. (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
Despite problem gambling being shown to cause societal problems such as financial issues, and personal issues such as stress and insomnia (Kalischuk, Nowatzki, Cardwell, Klein, & Solowoniuk, 2006), attitudes towards gambling are becoming more positive (Orfor...
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...2011) stated that long-term treatments of programmes tailored to the subtypes has not been investigated, and that no research has been conducted to measure the chronology of the onset of pathological gambling.
Sharpe’s (2002) Bio-psychosocial model of gambling is based upon Sharpe and Tarrier’s (1993) earlier cognitive and behavioural model of pathological gambling. This model attempted to explain the maintenance of gambling behaviour amongst pathological gamblers by taking into account cognitive elements and behavioural theories. This model was based on speculation, and Sharpe’s (2002) model attempts to integrate current research to provide evidence for the claims made in the original model. Sharpe’s (2002) model attempts to be a more comprehensive model, accounting for acquisition of gambling behaviour and the development of problem gambling as well as maintenance.
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