Three distinct decision making processes are programed decisions, operations research, and non-programed decisions (Dunn, 2010). Programed decisions are those made routinely and are well-known to the person making the decision (Dunn, 2010). Often these issues have standard rules and regulations that encompass them (Dunn, 2010). As stated by Dunn (2010), “operations research is closely aligned with systems analysis and is defined as the use of mathematical models, analytical methods, or structured inquiry to analyze a complex situation and identify the optimal approach” (p. 44). The third decision making process is non-programmed decisions, which are out of the ordinary having no typical solution (Dunn, 2010).
Steps of the decision-making process with integration of personal experience
A sequence of steps must be following in the decision-making process (Dunn, 2010). These include defining the problem, analyzing the problem, developing alternatives, evaluating the alternative and choosing the best, and finally taking action and following up (Dunn, 2010). According to Dunn (2010), the problem cannot be addressed until the true root of the problem has been defined. Once the source has been defined the next step is to gather the obvious and not so obvious factors and then analyze them ensuring to exclude any prejudice or bias (Dunn, 2010). The decision-maker then has the responsibility to identify several creative alternative solutions, both favorable and possibly unfavorable (Dunn, 2010). Once a number of resolutions have been identified, carefully consideration of each option ensues, followed by selection of the best choice (Dunn, 2010). The final step is imple...
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... is developed when the manager has open lines of communication (Lehman & DuFrene, 2011). Disadvantage of upward communication, if not handled appropriately, employees may become repressed, frustrated, and may seek alternative less accurate information (Dunn, 2010).
Diagonal communication can occur between persons on different levels of authority and even on the same level (Dunn, 2010). A positive aspect is this type of communication is the main channel for the organization to achieve coordination throughout the organization (Lehman & DuFrene, 2011). This form of communication is beneficial when other methods may not have been effective through other channels (Lehman & DuFrene, 2011). A disadvantage of diagonal communication is when organizations place roles and titles in a fashion where it leave little room for this type of communication (Lehman & DuFrene, 2011).
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