The forebrain (prosencephalon) is divided into two parts the diencephalon (contains the thalamus/hypothalamus which are responsible for functions such as motor, sensory, and autonomic as well as the pineal gland), the telencephalon (contains the cerebrum most information is processed in the cerebral cortex), and the pineal gland (produces the hormone melatonin). However, it also contains cerebrum. The thalamus acts as a switchboard operator by sending sensory impute to the necessary regions of the vertebral cortex. It plays an important role into processing and memory centers of the cerebrum. Thy hypothalamus functions as the brains control center for body temperature, thirst, hunger, heart rate, blood pressure, and the production of hormones. As the light strikes the retina of the eyes it transmits information to inhibit the function of the pineal gland. However, when in the dark the pineal gland secretes melatonin this effect helps in inducing sleep. This explains why darkness induces sleep while light disturbs a person’s sleep (Serendip, 2016).
The midbrain (mesencephalon) located close to the center of the brain found between the hindbrain and interbrain. It is made up of a portion of the brainstem. The midbrain can be separated into two main regions known as the tectum (relays reflexes pertaining to visual or auditory) and the cerebral peduncles (inhibits movement) (Serendip, 2016).
The hindbrain (r...
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...illaries and are filtered by the ependymal cells then released into the subarachnoid space as cerebrospinal fluid. It is made up of glucose, ions, and oxygen’s. The CSF is also responsible to transport waste products always from the nervous tissues (CBTF, 2016).
Briefly identify and describe the components and structures associated with simple reflex arcs.
The simple reflex arch consist of five functional elements: the receptors (external stimulus); sensory neuron (sends impulses from receptors to axon terminals); integrating center (located in the CNS it can either be a polysynaptic reflex with multiple synapse containing interneurons or simple monosynaptic containing two cells sensory/motor neurons); motor neuron (transmitting efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector); effector (body organ) responds to motor nerve impulses (Sonic, 2016).
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