Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essays

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essays

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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI),which is one of the most exciting recent developments in biomedical magnetic resonance imaging, allows the non-invasive visualisation of human brain function(1).
Functional MRI is a measurement technique based on ultrafast MR imaging sequences that are sensitive to the physiological changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV).These allow the researcher to measure changes in brain function typically via increases or decreases in blood oxygenation during the scanning(2).
The detection of neural activation in fMRI relies on perturbations of the water magnetization that are associated with the hemodynamic change (3).
Advantage and Disadvantage of fMRI
One of the greater advantages of fMRI is the spatial resolution (millimeters), so we can say MR imaging has outstanding spatial resolution but has a short coming with respect to temporal resolution of less than a second (4).

EEG
Electroencephalography is a cheap non-invasive technique which has become widely used in studying brain activity to measure the electric potential differences on the scalp produced by the active cortical neurons (5).
Moreover, EEG provides a direct and real time measurement of neural activity. The temporal resolution is of the order of a few milliseconds, which allow rapid changes in cortical function to be followed. On the other hand the spatial resolution is relatively low (6, 7).


MEG
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non invasive technique for studing neuronal activity in the brain. Unlike electrophysiological methods that depend on volume currents, MEG depends on the primary current (2, 8).
MEG is closely related to EEG. MEG is a more expensive method and provides be...


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...ram Recordings. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 27:607-616 (2008).
11-Karen J. Mullinger, Simultaneous EEG and fMRI at high fields. PhD Thesis 2008.
12-Matthew J. Brooks. Jiri Vrba, Karen J. Mullinger, Geroa Bjork Geirsdottir, Winston X. Yan, Claire M. Stevenson, Richard Bowtell, Petter G. Morris. Source Ilcalisation in concurrent EEG/fMRI: Application at 7T. NeuroImage 45(2009) 440-452.
13-Christos E. Vasios, Leonardo M. Angelone, Patrick L. Purdon, Jyki Ahveninen, John W. Belliveau, and Giorgio Bonmassar. EEG/(f)MRI measurements at 7 Tesla using a new EEG cap (''InkCap''). NeuroImage 33 (2006) 1082-1092.
14-Marcus A. Gray, Ludovico Minati, Neil A. Harrison, Peter J. Gianaros, Vitaly napadow, and Hugo D. Critchley. Physiological recording: Basic concepts and implemntation during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage. 2009; 47(3-8): 1105-1115.

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