Adrenaline (also called epinephrine) is both hormone and neurotransmitter, produced in adrenal glands and some neurons of central nervous system. The main function of adrenaline is to prepare body to ‘fight or flight’ response as the answer to stressful triggers. It is the immediate reaction, when the stressor is recognised. The physical reactions in the ‘flight or fight’ mode include increased heart rate, bladder relaxation, dry mouth, slowed digestion, flushed face, hearing loss, dilated pupils, tunnel vision. All those responses are supposed to help in fighting the danger by temporary taking away the blood supply from systems that are not essential in the fighting for survival (e.g. slower digestion, menstruation stops). Adrenaline binds to liver cells in order to accelerate production of glucose as all the immediate reactions require the huge amount of energy.
Regularly, adrenaline work on blood pr...
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...or decrease the synthesis of some proteins and enzymes. They reinforce the influence of other hormones, e.g. adrenaline and noradrenaline. T3 and T4 affect most of the cells of the body by increasing the metabolic rate and heat production and controlling metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. They are necessary for normal growth and developments, particularly of the skeleton and nervous system. Effects of thyroid hormones on other organs and especially noticeable in case of underactivity or overactivity of the thyroid gland. For example, symptoms of overactivity of thyroid gland include tachycardia, mental excitability, weight loss, increased metabolic rate. In underactivity of the gland, there are bradycardia, depression, weight gain, decreased metabolic rate, prone to hypothermia. The effects of thyroid glands problems are notably profound in childhood.
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