Essay The Four Principles Of Biomedical Ethics

Essay The Four Principles Of Biomedical Ethics

Length: 1486 words (4.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Euthanasia should not be accepted as part of the standard way of dying because it not only contradicts the most respected moral principle of ‘thou shalt not kill’, but also good medical practice. The four principles of biomedical ethics can be used as a framework to help guide moral decision-making in difficult situations including euthanasia. Arguments against the moral permissibility of euthanasia which are based on respecting autonomy and non-maleficence outweigh those related to beneficence and justice. In any case of euthanasia, careful evaluation of the interests of the various parties involved is crucial because ethical principles can be contentious at times and their meanings could be interpreted differently from theory to theory (Robison and Reeser, 2002).

Euthanasia, meaning ‘good death’ in Ancient Greek, refers to the deliberate intervention undertaken to bring about the “painless death of a patient with incurable disease” (Darji et al, 2011). Physician-assisted suicide also describes the termination of a very sick person’s life to end their suffering. Together they elicit the most controversy, but in both the fundamental issue is the moral permissibility for an individual to end his own life. Euthanasia can be classified as active and passive. Active euthanasia refers to the deliberate act, usually through administration of lethal drugs, to bring about the death of an individual who is suffering from an incurable condition. Passive euthanasia describes a situation when a doctor withdraws life-sustaining treatment and allows the patient to die (Wilcockson, 2008). The acts of euthanasia can be further categorised into voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary. In voluntary euthanasia, the person makes a competent decis...

... middle of paper ...

... by the individual doctor’s personal virtues, character traits and preference for moral theories.

Advances in medical science, and societal move towards greater individual autonomy and patient choice will influence the way euthanasia is debated. In the above discussion, key arguments against the moral permissibility of active voluntary euthanasia are elaborated, based predominantly on the principles of respecting autonomy and non-maleficence. The rarity of a truly autonomous choice and the problem of assessing patient’s competence are also highlighted. Most importantly, as the role of a doctor is to help and save lives, euthanasia can undermine the trust and confidence built in a patient-doctor relationship, hence morally impermissible. It should not be discussed until optimal palliative care has been given and the patient’s psychological state properly evaluated.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on The Four Principles in Biomedical Ethics

- In this diverse society we are confronted everyday with so many ethical choices in provision of healthcare for individuals. It becomes very difficult to find a guideline that would include a border perspective which might include individual’s beliefs and preference across the world. Due to these controversies, the four principles in biomedical ethic which includes autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice help us understand and explain which medical practices are ethical and acceptable....   [tags: ethical choices in provision of healthcare]

Strong Essays
1549 words (4.4 pages)

Ethical Principles of Clinical Studies Essays

- The introduction of any innovation or invention in medical technology requires sufficient testing to determine its safety and effectiveness. The fact that the clinical studies are performed on people generates significant ethical debate regarding respect towards those patients. It is interesting to discover that this ethical debate gained significant attention after WWII, during the Nuremberg War Crime Trials, where judgments for those who conducted biomedical experiments on prisoners were determined (The Belmont Report, 3)....   [tags: safety, research, patients]

Strong Essays
1059 words (3 pages)

Essay on Nursing and Biomedical Research

- With unparalleled technological advancement, nursing and bio-medical research, and the present healthcare environment, nurses must be cognisant of their professional and personal views of ethics. Ethics are standards of behaviour, developed as a result of ones concept of right and wrong (Judson & Harrison, 2010), and are intended to influence the actions of healthcare professionals. Ethical principles help guide the decision-making process among healthcare workers in complicated situations. [Therefore] we cannot understand nursing unless we also understand ethics (Gallagher & Wainwright, 2005) There are many different ethical theories which can mainly be divided into three groups....   [tags: Health Care, Nurses]

Free Essays
710 words (2 pages)

Health, Ethics and Society Essay

- Social science is defined as “the scientific study of human society and social relationships”. (Oxford Dictionaries 2013a) It is important to understand that different people would interact differently, giving rise to different different culture, social norms, beliefs and religions. By improving our understanding and awareness, we would be able to treat patients more efficiently and effectively whilst respecting their culture and beliefs. There is an increasing number of diseases and societal problems such as addiction, obesity, violence and end-of-life care that cannot be addressed without taking into account the behavioural or social factors....   [tags: morality, social construction, ethical dilemma]

Strong Essays
2607 words (7.4 pages)

Global Ethics: The Personal Philosophy of an American Expatriate Essay

- As health care reform comes to the United States, and wars, tsunamis, and earthquakes ripple across the world, the connection of our global community has never been more obvious. Growing globalization and increased air and space travel have removed international borders and brought humanity closer. Additionally, globalization has expanded the push for global health and provided numerous opportunities for the global community to impact the lives and health of people across the globe. According to Koplan, Bond, Merson, Reddy, Rodriquez, Sewakambo & Wasserheit (2009) global health can be described as a notion, objective or a practice that strives to maintain the health of the global community....   [tags: Personal Reflections]

Strong Essays
2067 words (5.9 pages)

The Principles Of Ethics And Ethics Essay

- 1. Duties- Svara (2015) suggests that a touchstone of administrative ethics is based on duties that promote public service, benefits to society, virtue, and principles. Duty defines the “action required by one’s business, occupations, or function”, but also the action or behavior due by moral or legal obligations. 2. Virtues- Ethics of virtue focuses on the overall development of character and how each person has the ability to achieve individual excellence through effective self- reflection and the development of virtues....   [tags: Ethics, Morality, Immanuel Kant, Virtue ethics]

Strong Essays
1057 words (3 pages)

Ethics And The Principles Of Ethics Essay example

- Sales Ethics Ethics are seen to the basic principles which are needed for the governing of behaviors. Ethics are not merely laws because they are not at all enforced by the governmental statutes. Ethics are seen to be going something beyond these laws. If a high level of ethical behavior has been enforced then it will also compel the individual in behaving in a truthful way. Ethics has wide implications in all fields of life. Ethics are seen to be realty important and values for the salesperson because he or she is the face of the company....   [tags: Ethics, Sales, Deception, Advertising]

Strong Essays
1785 words (5.1 pages)

Essay on The Ethics in Biomedical Research

- Rebecca Skloot is a writer specialized in science and medicine. In her first book, Skloot writes about Henrietta Lacks’ life story. Henrietta Lacks was a strong African-American woman, who died because of cancer without knowing that her cancer cells were immortal and very useful for medical research. Her family lived a poverty life without health care, when her cell was commercialized all around the world. That condition was related to biomedical research’s ethics and how consent form should be used properly....   [tags: Henrietta Lack's story]

Strong Essays
1118 words (3.2 pages)

Essay about The Verification Principle and Ethics

- In order to understand the Verification Principle, one must first become familiar with Logical Positivism. Logical Positivism is a school of philosophy that combines empiricism, the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge of the world, with a version of rationalism incorporating mathematical and logico-linguistic constructs and deductions in epistemology, the study of knowledge (Wikipedia). The Verification Principle as A.J. Ayer states, is a statement is cognitively meaningful if and only if it is either analytic or in principle empirically verifiable....   [tags: Verification Principle, rhetoric, ethics, ]

Strong Essays
643 words (1.8 pages)

Analysis Of Beauchamp And Childress Have Devised Four Principles Essay

- Beauchamp and Childress have devised four principles which are: autonomy which is the right of any individual to make their own decisions; non- maleficence which is to avoid harm; beneficence which is the duty to do good and justice which is to treat everyone equally (Aldcroft, 2012). All of these play a major role in the conflict between Elsie and the healthcare professionals. Like every patient, Elsie has a right to make a decision regarding her treatment and it’s the duty of the healthcare professional to respect their decision....   [tags: Ethics, Virtue, Virtue ethics, Health care]

Strong Essays
846 words (2.4 pages)