Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also know as Mahatma, meaning “Great Soul”) is celebrated as the father of the Indian independence movement, and the leading freedom fighter for Indian nationalism in British-ruled India (Nojeim, 57). Gandhi developed his own concept of passive resistance, which he called Satyagraha (meaning “truth and firmness or “truth force”) (Ackerman & Duvall, 65). The concept was a way of non-violent protest against authority and injustice, and Gandhi taught this concept through living as an example of peace and passive resistance (Roberts & Ash, 43).
After moving to South Africa, Gandhi personally suffered through several injustices of discrimination for being non-European (Ackerman & Duvall, 63). Finding that discriminatory practices were common, Gandhi began a stay of twenty-years in South Africa, during which he worked to fight discrimination, and better Indian’s rights in South Africa (Ackerman & Duvall, 64). Gandhi first used his concept of Satyagraha in 1907 to protest the Black Act, which required all Indians in South Africa to be fingerprinted and carry registration documents (Nojeim, 128). After seven years of ...
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...gles are inspiring stories of the human spirit triumphing over the cruelest oppression. Leaders of these civil resistance movements drew on all their strength of body and mind, to peacefully make changes in the world that would create a better life for everyone their communities.
Ackerman, Peter, and Jack DuVall. A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict.
New York: St. Martin's, 2000. Print.
Mac, Ionnrachtaigh Feargal. Language, Resistance, and Revival: Republican Prisoners and the
Irish Language in the North of Ireland. London: Pluto, 2013. Print.
Nojeim, Michael J. Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance. Westport, CT:
Praeger, 2004. Print.
Roberts, Adam, and Ash Timothy. Garton. Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience
of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. Oxford [England: Oxford UP, 2009.
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