Essay PreviewMore ↓
FACTS controllers can be divided into four categories based on their connection in the network - Shunt Controllers, Series Controllers, Combined Series-Series Controllers and Combined Series-Shunt Controllers. These type of controllers are connected in shunt with the transmission line. Shunt controllers are of variable impedance type, variable source type or a combination of both. They inject current into the system at the point of connection and thereby inject or absorb reactive power and hence regulate voltage at the point of connection. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR), Thyristor Switched Reactor (TSR), Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) and Static Synchronous Compensator (Statcom) are the common shunt controllers. Series controllers are connected in series with the transmission line. They decrease the overall effective series transmission impedance from the sending end to the receiving end and thereby control the power flow. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Thyristor Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC), Thyristor Controlled Series Reactor (TCSR) and Thyristor Switched Series Reactor (TSSR) are some of the common series controllers.
Combined Series-Series controllers are connected in series with neighbouring lines with a DC link in between them. They control power flow through the installed lines and are also capable of exchange of active power between neighbouring lines. The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) is one such controller Combined Series-Shunt controllers are the most versatile and powerful device among the FACTS device family. They are connected both in series and shunt with the transmission lines. Depending on its main control strategy they can act as shunt and/or series compensator, a power flow controller, a voltage regulator or a phase shifter. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is one such controller. In this work voltage stability improvement is focussed and hence the shunt FACTS device SVC is used here.
A. Static Var Compensator (SVC)
SVC is a shunt-connected static reactive power generator or absorber which can maintain or control specific parameters of the electrical power system (typically bus voltage). They are called static because they dont have any rotational components
How to Cite this Page
"Four Categories of FACTS Devices." 123HelpMe.com. 06 Dec 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Mobile Security Catching Up. Revealing the Nuts and Bolts of the Security of Mobile Devices Summary: The paper tells about growing importance of mobile security and explains differences between mobile and normal security. The paper provides a brief overview of mobile network security and mobile threats. The author stated that, beginning the use of smart phones have become so powerful and affected security system which in turn led to increased importance on mobile security.... [tags: Computer security, Security, Physical security]
890 words (2.5 pages)
- The novel 1984, by George Orwell talks about a world where people have been classified into separate categories. Big Brother is the highest authority. He holds immense importance in the dystopic world because he has the power to monitor every individual’s actions psychologically and physically. The second category includes people who unwillingly work for Big Brother. They are heard and watched simultaneously, through the telescreen. Lastly, the Proles have no say in the government. They are aware of the fact that any minor blunder can get them arrested.... [tags: Nineteen Eighty-Four, Two Minutes Hate, Telescreen]
1151 words (3.3 pages)
- ... People who have fair skin or light coloured eyes are more at risk of developing skin cancer. People can develop skin cancer from certain weather conditions or areas. For example, people who live in warmer climates are more likely to get skin cancer because the sun gives off higher levels of radiation. Skin cancer cannot only be developed through long term exposure to UV radiation. It may be possible that your family’s medical history can enable you to become susceptible to cancer. What are the symptoms of Skin Cancer.... [tags: maligant, cells,c auses, facts, work]
905 words (2.6 pages)
- In order to provide every student equitable access to the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a high-tech global marketplace, today’s teachers must be ready to embrace technology. Each generation seems to be labeled. In a report issued by the International Education Advisory Board, Learning in the 21st Century: Teaching Today’s Students on Their Terms, if you were born in the late 1940’s to early 1960’s you were known as a “Baby Boomer”. If you were born in the mid 1960’s to late 1970’s you were known as “Generation X”.... [tags: Mobile Devices Transform Education]
2872 words (8.2 pages)
- In act one J.B Priestly the writer of ‘An Inspector Call’ uses several dramatic devices and ironies to draw in the audience. This story was first performed in 1945 which was at the end of the World War 2, but was set in 1912 before the upsetting disaster of the titanic. These dates are vital as they all link into the message and flow of the story. As in 1945 the World War 2 ended and this was when the labour party got elected as government. Also this is when the welfare states were created which Priestley was much in favour of setting up , this is when you are looked after for example free housing, health care and many more.... [tags: Literary Devices, Critical Analysis]
807 words (2.3 pages)
“Impact of Using Excessive Electric Devices and Educational Software’s in a Four Year College Education; Is It Good or Bad?”
- Technology has hugely impacted four year college education; most of the four year colleges are now relying a lot on technology. Most of the new technological devices and software’s are changing four year college environment. The main things that technologies added to four year college education are online college applications, educational software’s, online and hybrid courses . Online college applications, educational software’s, online and hybrid courses have advantages and disadvantages in four college education.... [tags: data/communication technology]
1381 words (3.9 pages)
- Categories of Computers and Components of a Computer Categories Personal Computers A Personal Computer (PC) is a computer that is generally only used by one person at a time. A PC with the help of a user is able to perform all of its output, input, storage, and processing activities by itself. (1) There are many types of PCs that include Laptops and Desktop. Laptops sometimes called notebooks are a portable type of computer that is designed fit into a person’s lap and comes in many different sizes and capabilities (1).... [tags: Personal computer, Laptop, Hard disk drive]
1042 words (3 pages)
- Introduction According to Davis (2012), “Nine out of 10 technology pros think smartphones and tablets will become more important to business productivity in the next couple of years. Seventy-two percent expect to offer more bring-your-own-device options so that employees can access company data with their personal gadgets.” The use of personal electronic device usage is on the rise in the corporate workplace. Although there are opportunities associated with this; there are also risks involved. Companies and government IT divisions need to evaluate these risks, and put specific mitigation plans in place to establish policies to assure that business information is secure.... [tags: personal devices, risk mitigation]
577 words (1.6 pages)
- Edgar Allan Poe's The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar Edgar Allan Poe's The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar is one of his more interesting works. Granted, this is one of his lesser-known works, but nevertheless this short story is clear example of the obsession theme that is so prominent in the majority of Poe's work. In fact, the obsession the narrator in the story closely resembles Poe himself because he was somewhat obsessed or infatuated with mesmerism for a while. This could be one example where Poe allows the reader into himself (as the narrator) or this could be yet another of Poe's tricks on his audience.... [tags: Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar Essays]
2603 words (7.4 pages)
- Two Main Categories of Collaboration The first thing I noticed about the subject of collaboration is that it is huge—there are as many styles, types, methods, rationales, theories, benefits and drawbacks as there are theorists and scholars. Additionally, almost no one appears to agree on even such simple matters as terminology (Is it collaborative writing or collaborative learning. Is it peer response, review, or editing?), let alone on actual application and practice. As Kenneth Bruffee states in “Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind,’” an essay many supporters and detractors of collaborative writing hearken back to time and time again, his essay “offers no recipes” beca... [tags: Collaboration Writing Classroom Essays]
4274 words (12.2 pages)
QSVC = BSVC V 2 (1)
In equation (1) QSVC is the reactive power injected/ absorbed by SVC, BSVC is the susceptance of the SVC and V is the voltage of the bus at which SVC is connected. The voltage-reactive power characteristics of a practical SVC system are shown in fig 1. From the characteristics we can see that with increase in bus voltage SVC absorbs lagging reactive power and try to reduce the bus voltage. When voltage decreases SVC injects leading reactive power and thereby try to increase reactive power. The extent of absorption or injection depends on the firing angle of the thyristors. There is a linear range over which SVC try to regulate the bus voltage. The limit is decided by the maximum inductive and capacitive susceptance of the SVC. Beyond that range the
Fig. 1. Voltage – reactive power characteristics of an SVC
SVC can be divided into two categories namely
1) Thyristor-controlled and Thyristor-switched Reactor (TCR
2) Thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC).
A Thyristor Controlled or Switched Reactor(TCR/TSR) is a shunt connected FACTS device. It consist of a fixed(usually air core) reactor and a bidirectional thyristor valve. Due to the unavailability and high cost of large power rated thyristors usually a combination of thyristors are employed for constructing TCR and TSC. The main difference between TCR and TSC is that in TCR the effective admittance of the device can be controlled in a smooth manner within its limit, while in TSR the effective admittance is not controllable rather it is fixed. So a group of such units are used and whenever desired, the required number is turned on. Hence the admittance variation in TSR is like a step like manner. The construction of TCR and TSC are similar but in TSR the firing angle is always kept at zero degree but for TCR it is kept variable. The fig 2 shows a single unit of TCR and TSR.