The foundation of a community is built upon its various social institutions: educational, economic, and governmental; as a result, the trajectory of one’s familial life is predicated on the outcomes that these institutions produce. When inequality becomes the crux upon which these systems are built, the ostensible result is widespread oppression. It has long been understood that providing an equitable, high quality education is a critical component of any given society’s socio-economic success, thus a society’s failure to properly educate its citizenry represents a significant social problem. The African-American community is one such example of persons who have long fought against the systems of oppression that have denied them access to a nonpartisan, integrated, and equivalent education. Affirmative action has been an effective integrative tool used to grant institutional access to both ethnic minorities and women in the United States by utilizing racial and gender-based quotas. In spite of these efforts, many affirmative action policies have recently been overturned by American voters, as well as the judiciary; furthermore, minorities have experienced the repercussions of failing schools from the ubiquitous presence of resegregation. The catalyst for the resegregation of urban schools has been the disintegration of affirmative action policies; moreover, this phenomenon has given rise to substandard public schools, escalating poverty, and plummeting college admission rates to top-tier universities for members of African-American families.
Resegregation is a phenomenon that represents a substantive reversal in the empowerment and desegregation policies of the civil rights movement. Efforts toward ethnic integration on the mac...
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...ers, it appears that the initial attempts at desegregation were met with white flight. This is especially problematic because as Whites leave these areas the economic resources and access that are sought by minorities leave with them. This phenomenon of exclusion and resegregation is evident nationwide. Data shows that 57% of African-American students attend schools that are ethnically segregated in Illinois; 55% in Michigan; 52% in New York; and 47% in New Jersey; “clustering of black public school students at “black” schools is far worse in Midwestern and Northeastern states than in Southern ones based on the overall percentages” (Person 2010). Ethnic minorities tend to be poorer than Whites and school funding is based on community tax rates so children who are economically disadvantaged are further disadvantaged by schools without sufficient economic resources.
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