The Euro is the common currency of the European Monetary Union (EMU). The national currencies of the participating countries were replaced with Euro coins and bills on January 1, 2002. The countries that participate in the Euro Monetary Union (EMU) are Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, and Finland (http://europa.eu.int/eoro/entry.html). These countries irrevocably established the conversion rates between their respective national currencies and the euro and created a monetary union with a single currency, giving birth to the euro. Euro banknotes and coins entered circulation on 1st January 2002. (http://europa.eu.int/comm/economy_finance/euro/origins/origins_main_en.htm). Euro area financial markets switched to the euro, including foreign exchange, share and bond markets. New euro area government debt was exclusively issued in euro as from that day. "Around 7.8 billion euro notes and 40.4 billion euro coins, together worth 144 billion, were put into general circulation by the central banks of the twelve participating countries of the euro area. Euro notes were distributed by bank machines and shops started to give customers change in euro cash. At the same time, each country started to withdraw national currency notes and coins from circulation. Each Member State adopted a transition period of dual circulation during which the public could spend their remaining national currency notes and coins in shops or exchange them for euros at banks" (http://europa.eu.int/comm/economy_finance/euro/origins/origins_main_en.htm).
Several other countries including the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungry, Malta, Poland,...
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...flush with dollars typically look to US treasury securities as a means of secure investment. With a large reduction in such investment, the country could potentially go into default. Things could turn very bad, very quickly." (http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi?noframes%3Bread=30707)
(http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi?noframes%3Bread=30707) Retrieved from the internet on June 5, 2005. Yahoo engine search.
(http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:s3KV1jxynKkJ:www.a1-guide-to-gold-investments.com/euro-vs-dollar.html+euro+vs+dollar&hl=en) Retrieved from the internet on June 5, 2005. Google engine search.
(http://www.brillig.com/debt_clock/). Retrieved from the internet on June 5, 2005. Google engine search.
(http://www.forexblog.org/2005/04/us_trade_defici.html) Retrieved from the internet on June 5, 2005. Yahoo engine search.
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