4. Actual vs relative hypovolemia
Hypovolemia is the decreased of blood volume related to extracellular fluid volume insufficiency. Extracellular volume is determined by the total amount of sodium and water when osmolality is normal. Visible loss of sodium, chloride and total body water due to increased fluid loss such as diarrhea, vomiting and polyuria or inadequate fluid intake is called actual hypovolemia. When the water within the body is displaced not lost, from the intravascular space to the interstitial space, it is called relative hypovolemia. (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013)
5. MDs orders
- 1000 ml D5NS with 30 mEq KCl at 125 ml/hr
Treatment of hypokalemia requires an increase of potassium serum level between 3.5-5 mEq/L. The use of diluted pot...
... middle of paper ...
...k, stress and loss of independence. Accidents related to diminished eye sight. Drug use and misuse becomes an issue due to lack of finances, use of too many over the counter aids and insufficient knowledge. In an aging adult, cardiac afterload begins to decrease increasing the risk for hypertension along with increased sodium intake with reduced potassium and calcium intake. Pulmonary aging alterations are stiffening of the chest wall, loss of elastic recoil, decreased compliance, increase in flow resistance and changes in gas exchange. Work of breathe increases to provide air into and out of the lungs. Extended imbalance can cause atherosclerosis, renal disease, coma and death. Recovery from this imbalance requires stopping the imbalance by decreasing vomiting with anticholinergics. Increasing fluid volume with 0.9%NS and facilitating potassium equilibrium.
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