The greatest challenge came from Herbert Simon. In “Administrative Behavior,” [Simon, H. A. (1946.) The proverbs of administration. Public Administration Review, 6(1), 53-67.] Simon lobs criticism at the thinking that was prevalent during the orthodox; he deduces that public administration’s use of principles is too unscientific and tantamount to not much more than proverbs because the principles in place could not be tested and, unlike scientific theory, proverbs do not disprove that which is false though they tend to offer ‘proof’ for what is believed to be true. As an aside, this is, in my opinion, very much in line with religious thinking; where public administration is concerned, the constructs and thinking that took place during the orthodox period drew its share of ‘believers’ perhaps in part because alternative explanations were in limited supply.
Simon analyses each of the four major accepted principles of public administration (specialisation, hierarchy/unified command, limited span of control, and grouping workers by the processes they perform and purpose the serve) and breaks down its supporting arguments by pointing out the inherent contradictions. For example, Simon believed that unified control is in direct contrast with specialisation for a...
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...ic methods with management to create a more effective executive leader and more efficient organisation.
Benefits offered by these studies to the 'administration ' aspects of public administration are immeasurable. in studying what motivates people these scholars have developed a foundation for strong organisational design and workplaces that need not be one-size-fits all in the industries sense. Organisations that are structured to draw the best work product out of employees while meeting the needs of those they serve are the organisation best primed to meet changing demands of their constituency. In my own experiences with process improvement remedies to improve efficiency, I can safely say that the organisation that considered and incorporated the needs of the labour force in their design performed far more competitively and responsively than their counterparts.
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