The final theory of morality that I will discuss is the virtue theory. The virtue theory is simply based on virtues and vices; virtues being good or desirable character traits and vices being bad or undesirable character traits. This theory focuses more on living a good life and striving to have good virtues rather than just focusing on actions alone. Virtue ethics also believes that is important to not only do the right thing, but to have the proper motives behind doing what is right. The greatest emphasis is placed on being a good person.
Aristotle is the one who laid down the foundation for virtue-based ethical viewpoint. His theory is called nicomachean ethics and states that virtues are characteristics that allow people to live well in order to achieve what he called eudaimonia, meaning the ultimate happiness. He believed that there were moral virtues and intellectual virtues and explained that one may be taught intellectual virtues, but moral virtues must be learned through experiences or acquired over our life. Moral virtues are things like kindness, honesty, and fairness whereas nonmoral virtues are things like patience, self-control, and courage. Aristotle also believed that the character of a person is something that is developed and something that we can work on. Without Aristotle’s work there may not have been a virtue theory.
The key weakness that the virtue theory has, in my opinion, is that it seems like a person can being displaying a virtuous quality such as courage, but they could be doing something that is wrong. For example, I think that a thief would need to be courageous in order to rob someone. So in the eyes of the virtue theory would the thief be a virtuous person since he was displaying cour...
... middle of paper ...
...st to determine what the right thing to do is. The virtue theory does the best job in recognizing that morality is a complex matter which is why I find it be the strongest theory. I mentioned that the key weakness of the virtue theory is that a person can be displaying a virtuous quality but not acting morally. If I was to argue on the behalf of the theory I would make the point that if one is of high character they would not display their virtuous qualities in morally wrong acts. Another common objective to the virtue theory is: how does one determine what is a virtue and what is vice in a world of different cultures? I would argue that it is up to each individual to interpret what constitutes as a virtue or vice. There is never going to be a theory of morality that is universally accepted or without weakness but the virtue theory gives the best overall case.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- 1. Devine Command Theory is the theory is that morality is dependent on God (Austin). God makes commands and people live by His word and are dependent on His morals for their way of life. In this Theory God makes his commands and people use this to live moral lives. There are so many religions out there that sometimes people are opposed to DCT, just because God said they should do it. There are many philosophers that are for and against The Devine Command Theory. The strength that I see in DCT is that it gives people something to believe in, not just because he said so, but because they have faith in God and he has everyone’s best interest at heart.... [tags: Immanuel Kant, Morality, Ethics, Philosophy]
864 words (2.5 pages)
- In Ethics Kant described his ethical system, which is based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality. Actions of any sort, he believed, must be undertaken from a sense of duty dictated by reason, and no action performed for suitability or merely in compliance to law or custom can be regarded as ethical. Kant described two types of commands given by reason. The first was hypothetical imperative, which dictates a given course of action to reach a specific end, and the categorical imperative, which dictates a course of action that must be followed because of its rightness and necessity.... [tags: Immanuel Kant, Categorical imperative, Morality]
1380 words (3.9 pages)
- Philosopher, Christine Korsgaard, assesses her idea of the capacity for normative self government, in her her short writing, Morality and the Distinctiveness of Human Action. In her writing she argues that a form of life, whether human or animal/insect, it is not one controlled by guidelines and principles but is one governed by instinct desire and emotion. Korsgaard makes her claim with examples and premises on intentions. Korsgaard claims that the essence of morality relies on the normative self government and believes that laws in society do not protect those who are citizens but those who share the interest that the laws were made to protect.... [tags: Morality, Immanuel Kant, Human]
907 words (2.6 pages)
- The Kantian view of morality bases its opinions of morality based upon the Categorical Imperative’s rulings about the reasoning used to justify the action that a person performs. One commonly used method to state the Categorical Imperative posed by Immanuel Kant in Groundworks of Metaphysics, called the Universal Law Formation (ULF) defines an action as either moral or immoral based upon whether the individual performing the action can “rationally will the maxim behind their action to be universal law,” or, in other words, the if someone can, with reason, wish that everyone acted in the same way based upon the same reasoning.... [tags: Immanuel Kant, Ethics, Morality, Kantianism]
1431 words (4.1 pages)
- Animals have long been used for research and testing purposes dating back to as early as the nineteenth century() . Animals are often the subjects of experiments in the field of science in order to gain further knowledge about human disease as well as testing the safety of potential human treatments. Animals such as mice and rats are amongst the most commonly used subjects due to their physiological and genetic similarities with humans, which is why using animals for these scientific purposes can be tremendously helpful for furthering advancement in the medical field.... [tags: Ethics, Morality, Immanuel Kant, Animal rights]
1176 words (3.4 pages)
- There are many theories associated with developmental psychology, which studies the scientific process and cause of human development over the course of our lives. Developmental psychologists study a wide range of theoretical areas, such as biological, social, emotional, and cognitive processes (McLeod, S. A., 2012). Two theories of developmental psychology that I will be discussing will be the theory of moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg, and Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. According to Kohlberg, individuals progress through a series of stages in the evolution of their sense of justice and in the kind of reasoning that they utilize to make moral judgments (Feldman, R., 20... [tags: Jean Piaget, Theory of cognitive development]
1608 words (4.6 pages)
- Behaviourist such as John B. Watson believes that our live style is influenced by our own environment, that what we are, is as a result of what we have learnt from the environment. He presumed that, our learning from the environment is through two main behaviourist processes called classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning includes learning by association supported by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, who associated the salivating of the dog for food to the ringing of the bell, thereby conditioning the dog in learning new behaviour (natural response and neutral stimuli).... [tags: Theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget]
1648 words (4.7 pages)
- Throughout human history, the topic of theology has been a central aspect of everyday life. A common denominator of all modern-day religions is that they provide a set of rules which one is to follow in order to live as a good, moral being. When a deity (or a group of deities) commands followers to abide by specific moral standards though a vehicle such as prophets, religious texts or otherwise, this is called Divine Command Theory (DCT). Those who accept this theory believe that moral action coincides with what has been ordered by the deities, and immoral action would occur when one deviates from these orders.... [tags: Euthyphro, DCT, theology]
1663 words (4.8 pages)
- Many seem to have fallen prey to the seduction of ethical relativism, because it plays into their ethnocentric egoistic moral belief. Individuals such as Pojman are able to critically evaluate this moral principle and not fall victim like his or hers lay counterparts. We will attempt to analyze the theory of ethical relativism, by check the validity of this ethical theory, and evaluate its ethical concepts. With these procedures we will find if it is competent as an ethical principle to adhere by.... [tags: Ethics, Morality, Moral relativism]
1436 words (4.1 pages)
- Immanuel Kant's Theory Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) discussed many ethical systems and reasoning’s some were based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality. In Kant’s eyes, reason is directly correlated with morals and ideals. Actions of any sort, he believed, must be undertaken from a sense of duty dictated by reason, and no action performed for appropriateness or solely in obedience to law or custom can be regarded as moral. A moral act is an act done for the "right" reasons.... [tags: Papers Immanuel Kant Morality]
761 words (2.2 pages)